CHAPTER 1 Concept of culture and civilization Meaning of Culture : Although it is Difficult to give any exact defination of culture , but it is very easy to understand the concept of Culture. examples of culture can be seen every where around you. you intuitively know that their are certain attitudes, feelings and ideas that exist when you go to a certain place. like in corp-orate Culture, office might be formal or casual in design, employes may be encouraged to dress casually to encourage feeling of equality, comfort and for productivity, management might show caring and personable attitude by sending gifts and cards to employees on key dates in their lives and festivals etc.right from throwing
Culture is defined as the customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social group. (www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/culture) It is the history of the people; their reason for conducting themselves the way they do. The culture of a group of people is something they are proud of. It showcases the very things that make them unique and separates them from others. While culture does provide a uniqueness to groups and regions, all cultures do have similarities.
Culture is fundamental to how we analyze, interpret, and engage in the world around us. Culture is moulded by history, politics and the circumstances in which we live. Culture is a set of principles that we adhere to. It is a set of behaviours that is common to a specific class of society. It is through culture that people are defined, and share particular value systems.
Culture rules each aspect of life, including beliefs, customs, laws, morals, art knowledge and peoples' capabilities. It consists of precise and implicit patterns of behavior which are acquired and conveyed by symbols, composed of distinct achievements of the society (Milne, 2010). Culture enables members to associate with others without necessarily negotiating the meaning of their actions. It is a system of shared values and behaviors, although not homogenous; it enables people to act in a socially appropriate manner. Also, culture is learned from peers, institutions, and families but the fulfillment of individuals' needs varies cross-culturally (Bambery, 2014).
Culture is an identity of a group of people living in specific place. It is the knowledge of the particular group of people which defined by everything such as their language, religion, arts and music etc. Culture is a pattern of behaviors and interactions, cognitive constructs and understanding learned by socialization (Zimmermann, 2015) . Culture is the identity of a nation and the society is impossible without it. Every culture has its own characteristics such as learnt, social, adaptive, social, continuous etc.
Basically culture is a way of living. However, in sociological parlance, in the words of E.B.Tyler ‘Culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.’ Broadly, culture has seven elements. These are things that are common to each and every culture. a. Social Organisation: Social organisation refers to patterns of social interaction.
These shared patterns distinguish one from another group and also identify the members of a culture group”(CARLA’s definition). Culture can be defined by how the members of particular group interpret, use and perceive the artifacts, tools, or other tangible cultural elements. In modernized societies, it is not the material objects or tangible aspects of human societies that distinguishes one from another, but what do are its beliefs, core values, interpretations and perspectives. (What is Culture? CARLA) .
Culture is accepting a cumulative code of life and labelling it as the right given way to live. It includes every aspect of a society's life; from their beliefs, behaviours and language to their art and even the preferable kind of food. The shape of any society as we see it today is the result of one generation passing its culture and influencing the next generation. The concept of Culture held the combination of knowledge, beliefs, morals, laws, and any other capabilities and habits accrued by individuals as a members of society. (Tylor, pp1).
Like as if we are talking about the development for example in the West—great philosophers, artists and poets. Second, a culture may be ‘a particular way of life, whether of a people or a group’ (so it can refer to holidays, traditions, religious beliefs and festivals and the like). Lastly, he suggests that culture can be used to refer to ‘the works and practices of intellectual and especially artistic activity’. Here, the culture signifies the texts (written symbols) and practices to show culture in an artistic manner. For example, literary pieces and others like poems/poetry, novels, plays, dances, songs, novels, operas.
There are various meanings to the word culture. For some people, culture means the appreciation of good art, food, literature, music, and many more. For biologist, it could mean a colony of microorganism plated in a Petri dish, test tube, or other possible storage with agar as the microorganism’s source of nutrient. For anthropologists and other behavioural scientists, culture is not just an act of appreciation or a colony of some microorganism; it comprises of a full range of learned human behaviour patterns. However, culture is not only for intangible things such as beliefs, norms, thoughts, and values but also for tangible things such as physical objects or artifacts.