1.0 INTRODUCTION The adult learning theories reflect the ways in which the adults assimilate skills, attitude, knowledge, and information. The theories are the organised set of principles, which explains the process through which adults gain, retain, and recall the knowledge. In the field of education, the learning theories have played an important role in understanding the process of learning. These theories are widely used by the teachers and instructors in as guidelines, which significantly help in selecting appropriate tools, techniques, and strategies that can facilitate the learning process (Arghode, et.al., 2017).
" Behaviour is learned from the environment through the process of observational learning." The behaviour we observed is models. In social life, children encompassed with effective people like parents, siblings, friends, tv characters and teachers etc. They attract to certain people and encode the behaviour and later imitate the behaviour interest to them regardless whether it is appropriate or inappropriate for them.
Schiro (2008) explains that learning takes place when students “have inculcated into them a way of viewing events in their environment through an intelligence oriented around a vision of a future good society” (Schiro, 2008, pg 180). Coupled with the knowledge component, learning is expressed when the students have placed the wants and needs of society as a whole, above what they might feel is fair. The evaluation component is analyzed when the knowledge and learning have been presented and the betterment of the community is
Kenneth Bruffee’s “The Art of Collaborative Learning: Making the Most of Knowledgeable Peers” discusses the importance of autonomous collaborative learning in classrooms, that is, when multiple individuals work together, and constructively criticize and exchange ideas in order to produce a fruitful product. With autonomy, the instructor fades into the background to allow the students to govern their learning, which circumvents the traditional view of the instructor’s authority in the classroom. Collaborative learning is being integrated into numerous fields of study, as teaching institutions are realizing that students learn best socially. A key idea discussed in the reading is that learning occurs when knowledge is passed between individuals, by which learning and acquisition of knowledge are both social processes. The author
Dewey’s belief is further extended by Vygotsky’s (1978) model of Zone of Proximal Development. Vygotsky believed that collaboration with others helps one to complete tasks that one could not have done without assistance from and collaboration with others. The ZDP is the level at which learning takes place. It comprises cognitive structures that are still in the process of developing, but which can only develop under the assistance/guidance of or in collaboration with others For social constructivism, greater emphasis is placed on learning through social interaction and the value placed on cultural background. Vygotsky believes that language and culture strongly influence children’s cognitive development and that adults are children’s connection to language, history, social context and ICT, all of which are parts of culture.
This characteristic provides the opportunity for children to develop and customise their own pathway, choosing to work individually or with others. This embodies the culture of student-directed learning, where each child experience of learning is driven primarily by them. Secondly, is community-based. Building learning environments where co-planning and co-teaching is adhered, builds on this principle of community. Inviting parents to join in and support their child’s learning, offers this strong connection….
Introduction: The English language is generally acknowledged as a global language, in view of its numerous functions and preference over several other languages around the globe. The tradition of English teaching has been drastically changed with the remarkable entry of technology. Technology provides so many options as making teaching interesting and also making teaching more productive in terms of improvements. Technology is one of the most significant drivers of both social and linguistic change. At present the role and status of English is that it is the language of social context, political, socio cultural, business, education, industries, media, library, communication across borders, and key subject in curriculum and language of imparting education.
Also, the theory of the self-determination motivation emphasized that each student has a desire of “autonomy (experiencing oneself as the origin of one's behavior), competence (sense of a complement) and relatedness (a connection to social group)” (Dörnyei, & Ushioda, 2013, p. 25; Dörnyei, Muir, & Ibrahim, 2014) in their task engagement, and if their needs are met and satified, their intrinsic motivation is enhanced. Deci and Ryan (1985) state that in the field of education, if teachers understand the nature of self-determination in individual’s development, the students ‘intrinsic motivation to willing to participate in a task will rapidly rise. This point leads another progressive perceptions is that teachers should create situations, learning
Social control could be law and order or simple rules and regulation. People are encouraged to observe the social norms and follow it as violation to it could lead to punishment. Social integration- education helps bring together people of different cultures and integrates people into the broader society. It also includes student-teacher relationship and informal relationship among the students as well as communication. All this is instilled through the curriculum and extracurricular activities encouraging team work, cooperation and fair play etc.
Education as an instrument of social change: One of the most formidable and potent tool of social change is Education. The society can bring about pertinent and much sought after desirable changes through education and modernize itself. By creating the right kind of ambience and by providing ample opportunities and experiences, education can enable an individual to cultivate and groom himself for adjustment with the emerging needs and philosophy of the changing society and aid in the can transformation of society as a whole. A sound social progress needs careful and meticulous planning in every dimension of life, be it political, economic, social and cultural. Education must be tailored to suit the needs of the society