2. JOB SATISFACTION DEFINITION Job satisfaction can be defined as a response which cannot be seen but inferred to a situation. Job satisfaction shows our attitude towards the job and is associated with the outcomes and expectations. According to Locke, it is “a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experience”. Job satisfaction is an outcome of employee’s perception of how well their job provides those things that are viewed as important.
A lot of the researches found that companies’ performance is highly related with the job satisfaction of the employees. According to Locke (1976), job satisfaction is “a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experiences.” Factors such as job security and income can influence the job satisfaction. However, recent finding found that job satisfaction of the employees was mainly influenced by their attitude and personality. The following will describe how the attitude and personality of the employees’ impact their job satisfaction. Furthermore, why should managers concern about the job satisfaction of their employees.
Thus, the job satisfaction or , dissatisfaction doesn’t depend only on the nature of the work, but also the type of the work which is performed by the employee himself/ herself and lead to increase the employee’s comfortability and satisfaction. According to Xia and Johns (2000), the job satisfaction is a complicated phenomenon with various aspects. In the same context, Linz (2002) mentioned that job satisfaction may be impacted by the attitudes towards the work and organizational disciplines, and the positive attitude suppose to increase the attitude of the employee and that lead to increasing the job satisfaction and motivates the individual performance. Mowday and Porter (1979) mentioned that the attitude is considered as a hypothetical structure represents the individual attitude as mental or neural readiness as a result of experiments, and dynamic influence that are correlated to the individual responses to all cases. That means, they described the attitude as a tendency in order to act in a specific method based on the experience and the mood of the employee.
It provides status to the individual and at the same time it binds him to the society. An employee who is satisfied with his job would perform his duties well and be committed to his job, and subsequently to his organization. Thus, it is of greatest importance for employers to know the factors that can affect their employees’ job satisfaction level since it would affect the performance of the organization as well. According to Meyer, John P., Stanley, David J.,
According to Herzberg’s (Herzberg et al., 1959; Herzberg, 1996) Motivation-Hygiene theory, job satisfaction differs according to a variety of personal characteristics. Kinicki et al. (2002) and Cote and Morgan (2002) also suggest that personal characteristics can have a significant impact on job satisfaction. Other factors found to be significantly associated with job-satisfaction include gender, length of service, and education (Clark, 1997). Furthermore, researchers have also stressed that individuals from different occupations desire different outcomes from their jobs and that these preferences tend to remain consistent within occupational groups (Lawler and Porter, 1967).
Other organizational dependent elements such as policies, opportunities, work allocation and leadership were equally instrumental in guiding and promoting good employee attitude which in turn lead to job satisfaction. It was also found out that team leads and managers should encourage employees to undergo training for improving communication skills, on stress management and familiarizing them with technical and technological concepts. A subsequent analysis showed a consistent employee job satisfaction and a correlated high productivity of the organization which was a direct result of the implementation of few worker motivation benefits and
1.2 Job Satisfaction Job Satisfaction is the extent of pleasurable emotional feelings individuals have about their jobs overall, and is the extent of individuals’ satisfaction with particular facets of their jobs, such as pay, working hours, and numerous other aspects of their jobs. There are many theories that explain the job satisfaction and various factors influencing it. A few of the theories that support the current study are listed below. Dispositional Theory: It is probably the only theory in job satisfaction that focuses in detail on the nature and innate behaviour of an individual. This theory states that one’s personality is an important determinant of the satisfaction level the person gets from the job.
Importance of Job Satisfaction In the organizational behavior researches, it is found that job satisfaction plays a positive role on both the employer and the employee. Importance of job satisfaction from these two interest groups are discussed below: For the employer, if the organization gets a group of satisfied workers, it will enjoy a better turnover and productivity. The organization will have a goodwill and a mystique will be created. As a result, employee retention rate will be high resulting stability within the organization. Customer, client or citizen satisfaction will be ensured through a group of distinguished, self-esteemed and satisfied workers.
Managers consider job satisfaction to be important because it is always relate to major causes of work behavior. This means that job satisfaction play an essential part in determining performance. What the organization or company always want to do is reducing the job dissatisfaction among their worker as it is not health and becoming issue for the development