the actual conquest and domination of the colonists. Notwithstanding, it alludes to practices and processes in order to colonise these communities. Ania Loomba refers to the necessity of “un-forming or re-forming” the already existing nations by the usage of “trade, settlement, plunder, negotiation, warfare, genocide, and enslavement [original emphasis]” (20). Consequently, the research area of Colonialism analyses scientific literature, testimonies, official documents and other writings thoroughly in order to stand to reason of obstacles, apartheid and, taking the colonised people into account, the personal difficulties in adapting new cultures. Further, the colonisers’ humiliating power during the colonial era is questioned, since the exploitation of the indigenous people was crucial and relevant for the development of one’s identity.
The cultural studies have made an impact on the translation process as a social and cultural practice, but also as a practice of diffusion and relocation of cultural goods that “allows us to situate linguistic transfer within the multiple ‘post’ realities of today: poststructuralism, postcolonialism and postmodernism.” (Simon, 1996 cited in Munday 2008: 131) Moreover, postcolonialism, as generally defined by Munday (2008: 131), is the term utilised to describe the studies of the history and culture of the former colonies and their conquerors, the opposition towards the European imperialists and the power relationships among them. Translation is closely linked to postcolonialism as both postcolonial writing and translation are influenced by relocation and both are invested with the transmission of cultural elements. This link between them “is accompanied by the argument that translation has played an active role in the colonization process and in disseminating an ideologically motivated image of colonized peoples.” (Munday, 2008: 132) Orsini and Srivastava (2013: 325) agree and state that: Bassnett and Trivedi squarely place the theory and practice of the postcolonial – as both creative and critical work – in relationship to the process of translation, which acts metaphorically and literally as a negotiation between the metropole and the periphery of literary cultures. Translation assumes a vital role in the growth of the empire as a way to aid the establishment of colonial
Cultural Hybridity in Interpreter of Maladies Jhumpa Lahiri’s “Interpreter of Maladies” is a story that explores the theme of exile and cultural hybridity. Jhumpa aims, in this story, at showing the trauma of loss of identity in clash of cultures. As Bhabha defines in the Location of Culture, “Hybridity is the sign of productivity of colonial power, its shifting forcesand fixities: it is the name for strategic reversal of the process of domination through disavowal (that is, the production of discriminatory identities that secure the ‘pure’ and original identity of authority). Hibridity is the revolution of the assumption of colonial identity through the repetition of discriminatory identity effects.” The character that exist in this space has internalized the ethos of the culture she was raised in, yet they have to deal with the palimpsest of their culture of origin. This gives rise to interest questioned about cultural hybridity and the condition of a postcolonial subject in a neo-colonial world.
Introduction Post-colonialism is a newly developing theory in the study of international relations which is concerned with the historical aspects surrounding a community as well as the attempting to make light of individuals, groups or other aspects that are often tomes over looked or not seen. In this essay, I will determine the relevance of the post-colonial theory for the study of international law. This will be done by considering what is post-colonialism, what is international relations and what is the relationship between post-colonialism and international relations like. I will also consider the historical development theories such as subaltern and orientalism which have played a key role in the development of the post-colonial theory.
The main and central objective of this dissertation is an effort to evaluate the post colonial thematic preoccupations in the African society and literature. It is an analysis of post colonial thematic preoccupations in the literary work ‘Arrow of God’ by Chinua Achebe and ‘Cry – The Beloved Country’ by Alan Paton. Both novelists have tried to depict the realistic condition of native African colonized people. Imperialism is a kind of aspect in which one country is trying to seek in expanding its power and authority by conquering other countries or by setting up economic and political dominance on the countries. Imperialism starts when one country or nation takes over smaller countries for their land and natural resources.
Postcolonial nations continue to live with the invasion of Western ideologies even after the departure of colonial powers from the country (Xie, 1997, p. 11). In this sense, there exists a transition in the carefully constructed colonized system into the formation of a new national identity, one that supersedes the West’s. However, colonial systems are intricate and permeates through spaces other than just political and social; It deconstructs local culture and education, and replaces ‘traditional values’ with ‘civilised’ ones (Xie, 1997, p. 15). Hodge and Mishra’s (2005) essay expands on the problems that exist in the study of postcolonialism. One of the problems related to postcolonialism is the leaks of insight into religious structures that exist in the native society.
It could be reasonably argued that the first step toward an understanding of this theory is exchanging views on culture, power relations, and history in a particular society. Tom Fish and Meredith Anne Skura affirm that New Historicism deals more specifically with the issues of power (the ways in which dominant group exerts its influence over others) and culture (social forces of constraint and mobility), and to the plays’ effect on power relations in the new world. (qtd. in N-avarro 14) The most obvious way of illustrating the culture over the past centuries is considering the various discourses in literary texts. New Historicism has changed the way in which we are obliged to think about the culture over the past centuries through literary
Spivak, for example, first used the term ‘post-colonial’ in the collection of interviews and recollections published in 1990 called The Post-Colonial Critic.Although the study of the effects of colonial representation were central to the work of these critics, the term ‘post-colonial’ per se was first used to refer to cultural interactions within colonial societies in literary circles (e.g. Ashcroft et al. 1977). This was part of an attempt to politicize and focus the concerns of fields such as Commonwealth literature and the study of the so-called New Literatures in English which had been
Title: A critical study: How Edward Said explicated the predicament of Exile through the works of 20th century novelists. Introduction: Postcolonial theory is the body of theoretical work, which is a study of colonial discourse and is usually called ‘postcolonial criticism’. It has pointed out the historical effect of colonialism and criticizing their persistence in contemporary culture, politics, philosophy and literature. So the attempting to discuss the theory of the postcolonial throughout critique various forms of imperialism and open a space for such critique because the theorists have struggled to accept the resistant power of the individual postcolonial means. However, the greater significance of postcolonial theory has been considered of the epistemological implications of the theme “Exile”.
TALLINN 2015 Defenders of modern imperialism and colonialism long pleaded their case in terms of the white man’s burden, they reasoned that it was the obligation of advanced nation to help the people of backward nations. (Perkin, Palmer. 2007). Imperialism has a wide range of meaning as different people have varying levels of understanding, some definitions of imperialism are as defined by Moritz B. “ imperialism is a policy which aims at creating, organizing and maintaining an empire (which is a state of vast size composed of various more or less distinct national units and subject to a single centralized will”.