The study of chronic poverty in Indian context has attracted major attention in recent times. India is country housing major proportion of rural households, who are vulnerable and susceptible to poverty. There exists rich literature on the rural poverty and its causes within the Indian context. However, delving deeper in, chronic poverty and its relationship with migration has received much attention only in the recent times. Chronic Poverty is a state of extreme poverty which makes it impossible for people to escape, given their lack of resources and assets.
POVERTY Name: DUA USMANI Registration Number: 58617 Instructor: QURATULAIN QAZMI Date Of Submit: 8TH DECEMBER TABLE OF CONTENTS: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The poverty refers to not having the basic requirements of human life or a person cannot afford the basic wants of life. Basic wants are the food, shelter, clothes, money and clean water. Poverty is having few income and less resources within the country. Poverty is the foremost problems which Pakistan is facing. This is the leading and sensitive issue not only for Pakistan but for the world.
Poverty is defined as the lack of basic human needs; and Africa is known to be the poorest continent, in which Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in that continent. According to statistics Tanzania has 30 to 40 percent poverty, and one of main issues that cause this poverty is that the rich exploit the poor for personal gain, and the lack of education in the community. This problem has been there even before Tanzania transitioned from a colony to an independent country. Even though, Tanzania is improving in terms of reducing poverty it remains one of the world’s poorest country. Many people including the father of Tanzania “Julius Kambarage Nyerere” tried to solve the issue of poverty in Tanzania by implementing policies to help the economy, but they failed.
Human poverty index It includes deprivation of a long healthy life, deprivation of knowledge, deprivation of decent living standards Uganda has made enormous progress in reducing poverty, slashing the countrywide incidence from 56 percent of the population in 1992 to 24.5 percent in 2009. The reduction of poverty in urban areas has been especially marked. Poverty in Uganda is an important issue as an appreciable number of people in Uganda; specifically, rural people are below the poverty line. About 60% of the Ugandan people are poor and 30% are very poor. CAUSES OF POVERTY Over population This is defined as the situation of having large numbers of people with too few resources and too little space.
This something can be in terms of money, can be in terms of services and facilities, in terms of opportunities, social influence and so on. According to a definition given by World Bank in 2002, poverty is deprivation of “well-being”. Now, well-being can be defined as how much hold an individual in the society has over commodities, so people are in a better condition if they have more command over resources. This concept measures poverty as to whether a household or an individual has access to enough resources to meet their needs. Thus, poverty is measured by setting up a benchmark of minimum, and based on that benchmark, people are classed poor or non-poor.
Poor people are unknown of their lack of voice, power, and rights, which leads them to exploitation. A poor person being unable to take part in social and cultural norms leads to breakdown of social relation among the people. Poverty is mainly seen in developing and under developed nations like Nepal, Bangladesh etc. More than 25% of the population in Nepal still lives below the poverty line. All the poor countries are facing serious effects of poverty which need to be solved.
Some vulnerable groups also face specific problems. For example, indigenous peoples have high illiteracy rates and are affected by the encroachment of modern technology and cultures onto traditional norms and practices. Fishers face continuing reduction in their catches and they have few opportunities or skills outside of fishing. Women have limited roles outside of marketing and family responsibilities. RURAL POVERTY IN THE PHILIPPINES In the Philippines, poverty remains mainly as a rural phenomenon, but urban poverty is on the rise.
In fact many of the poor people are deprived of basic needs like food, shelter and cloths. High inflation rate not only reduces the purchasing power of people but reduces their living standard and their savings are decreased hence they remain poor. Moreover the health and education of their children is affected as with their wages they can only purchase basic needs. In short inflation combined with being poor is
Dr. Kulshreshtha found in his study that poverty has been the major factor for the prevalent of child labour practices in India who are occasionally misused by privileged class, it employers and contractors to hire them at very low wages and with no better working condition. 3.5 Child Labour in India – by Lakshmidhar Mishra – Oxford University Press
A study by Mehta and Shah (2001) found multiple deprivations suffered by historically marginalized groups such as SCs, STs, etc., made it harder for them to escape poverty as different forms of disadvantages tended to be mutually reinforcing. Low productivity of land and labor and hence, lower earnings and wage rates were attributed to the chronic poverty among SC’s/ST’s, especially in Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and Bihar 60. A study by Krishna, Kapila, Porwal and Singh (2003), covering 20 villages in Gujarat, The study identified a combination of factors as being responsible for households falling into poverty, namely, ill health and heavy health-related expenditure, heavy customary expense on marriage and death feasts, and high interest. 61. Thorat and Mahamallik (2005) in their study, using secondary data, found that lack of access to income earning capital assets like agricultural land, limited employment diversification of rural non-farm sector, less urbanization, lack of human capital and the consequent heavy dependence on agriculture, particularly as wage labor with lower wages, were some of the important factors responsible for the persistently higher incidence of poverty among SCs/STs compared to non-SCs/STs in rural