Cause And Effect Of Stress On Employee Performance

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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The human resource in any organization constitutes the most valuable assets of the organization because of the complex role played by its human resources in planning, producing and distribution of goods and services. There is always pressure on employees trying to work hard in order to meet pressing deadlines in order to achieve goals. It will be a challenge and indeed stressful for them to fulfill all their responsibilities.

Stress can be defined as a complex phenomenon and has been defined in so many ways. The Longman dictionary of Contemporary English defines stress as “force or pressure caused by difficulties in life” Stress can be described as “an emotional state that is experienced
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Interactions between work and home stress affecting personal relationships also cause stress. Fairbrother and Warn (2003).
Ongori and Agolla (2008) stated that, a model designed by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) shows job stress and health relationships. The model stated the causes of stress as: Physical environment, conflicting roles, role ambiguity, interpersonal conflict, job future ambiguity, job control, and opportunities for employment, variance in work load, people’s responsibilities, abilities being underutilized, cognitive demands and shift work.

According to Kirkcaldy, Trimpoo and Williams (2003), causes of stress involve poor support/supervision and superior not supportive, non-consultation and non-communication, lack of recognition from supervisors, lack of cordial relationships, favouratism and insufficient human development or poor quality
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It has been accepted that stress has two opposite types of effects on individuals. These are positive and negative. When stress is accepted at a level, it helps to improve the individual’s performance whiles too much of it can lead to poor performance Stevenson and Harper (2006). Manshor et al (2003)3 in their studies revealed that, risks associated with work-related diseases and accidents have increased as a result of occupational stress in both developed and developing countries that have experienced growth in

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