• Water, the precious gift of nature. It is most crucial resource for sustaining life and is required for all human activities. The available water sources throughout the world are getting depleted and this problem is further aggravated by climatic change and the rate at which populations are increasing. India With a diverse population that is three times the size of the United States but one-third the physical size, India has the second largest population in the world. Although India has made improvements over the past decades to both the availability and quality of municipal drinking water systems, its large population has stressed planned water resources and rural areas are left out. In addition, rapid growth in India 's urban…show more content… The bottom-up approach based on minimum night flow analysis.
• The MNF is the lowest flow supplied to a hydraulically isolated supply zone, usually measured between 2.00 to 4.00am.
• Due to lack of accurate input data and advance technology, separation of water losses into real and apparent is a big challenge for strategic planning. 2.5 STRATEGY FOR WATER LOSS MANAGEMENT
1. Water audit - Water audit determines the amount of water lost from a distribution system due to leakage and other reasons such as theft, unauthorized or illegal withdrawals from the systems and the cost of such losses to the utility.
2. Performance indicator and bench marking - Expanding water networks without addressing water loss will only lead to a cycle of waste and inefficiency.
• High and increasing water losses are an indicator of ineffective planning and construction, and of low operational and maintenance activities.
3. Pressure Management - The rate of leakage in water distribution systems is a function of the pressure applied by pumps.leakage is directly proportional to pressure
• Number of benefits such as:
• it reduces amount of leakage to help meet water conservation targets
• improves the reliability and continuity of supply by reducing pipe