Literary journalistic discourse is “perhaps the most intertextual of all texts, referring to other texts” in terms of transforming prior historical stories and restructuring conventional literary and journalistic genres and discourses in an attempt to generate a new one, that is, literary journalism (Mills 65-66). Thus, the journalistic discourse cannot be but dialogic and intertextual because its raw material is a news story that can be manipulated, adapted, and adopted by the literary journalist in order to compete other versions of the story. It “assimilates a variety of discourses” that “always to some extent question and relativize each other’s authority” (Waugh 6). Literary journalists, thus, are actively engaged in interpreting and scrutinizing the discursive practices of intertextuality in order to generate their distinctive but hybrid discourse. This hybrid discourse can be conceptualized using Edward Said’s notion of the “contrapuntal”.
Nevertheless, literary journalists, usually, omit the explicit projection of the authorial subjectivity through the use of fictional point of view to ensure a sense of historical objectivity. They overcome the borderlines between public events and their intersubjective experiences by approaching “public fact through a frank, obtrusive, liberated assertion of their private consciousness” (Hellmann, “Postmodern Journalism” 52). In other words, literary journalists indulge themselves in an intersubjective experience of narrating public historical facts from an individual perspective that problematizes the dichotomy between the public and private, between the historical and the personal, and consequently between the journalistic and the literary. The autobiographical trope can be traced in The Armies as the narrative opens a window of intersection between a highly intersubjective experience and reporting a historical event. Through the formal division of the book into two parts, Mailer seeks to establish an inquiry about the status of genres traditionally polarized as fiction and history, literature and journalism, novel and history.
This combination of a deconstruction of form, which is fuelled further by the non-linearity of the novel, and self-reflexivity, is achieved by how the narrative voice is contrived, placing the novel firmly in the post-modern genre. At first glance, it may seem as though this is a realist
The Politics and Poetics of Literary Journalism 2in Norman Mailer’s The Armies of the Night Abstract This paper delineates how the various tropes of literary journalism envision new ways of negotiating the interstice of literature and journalism in a way that challenges the conventions of both genres. The paper limns three interrelated tropes for the new narrative genre. These tropes are the intertextual, the narcissistic, and the autobiographical. Within this framework of the three tropes, 1Mailer’s The Armies of the Night is discussed and analyzed. Through a close analysis of the poetics of literary journalistic narrative, this paper seeks a better understanding of the specific fictional poetics shared by both journalism and literature in Mailer’s text.
These simple yet informative sentences introduce two of the main characters, the narrator himself and Marvin. By utilizing a varying sentence structure, McKnight is able to shape tet text into almost command-like statements, declaring the importance of each and every word. This technique portrays the somewhat negative mood of the short story but also highlights the first matter at hand, racism. Integrating parataxis at the opening of the story lets McKnight arrange fragments that play off of each other and also be direct and declarative; additionally, the transparent nature of this emphasizes that McKnight is not going to beat around the bush about the important subject of race that he expands upon with this piece of literature. Even just in the introduction, there is a clear statement that racism exists is made by using the terms “black” and “white” in a stereotyping
A narrative critic’s close reading assumes literary integrity and reads the text holistically. The text is processed consecutively and the parts are related to the whole. The methodology of narrative criticism can be summarized in four steps. First, the form of the text is analysed and categorized according to formal and conventional literary aspects and genres. Literary aspect includes the categories of fiction, nonfiction, prose, and poetry.
From Stylistics to Narratology A Critical Reading of Charlotte Gilman’s “The Yellow Wallpaper” Abstract This paper aims to analyze “The Yellow Wallpaper” a short story written by Charlotte Perkins Gilman employing a combination of two stylistics tools, namely transitivity and presupposition. Studying such linguistic elements coupled with background contextual factors aim at illustrating the female protagonist’s attempt to liberate herself from her husband’s restraints which characterize the pressure that was brought to bear on women by the Victorian society. The male-domineering America of the nineteenth-century would dictate ideal values of femininity including sexual purity, piety, domesticity and submissiveness with the least degree of tolerance for any “deviant” behavior on women’s side such as using their own intellect and talent. The narratological techniques employed in this story can further be utilized as a great indicator revealing the process of the main character’s mental deterioration which is caused by her deprivation from mental and physical activities. The narrator-focalizer proves to be unreliable throughout the text, though this unreliability serves to bond the implied author to its implied audience.
Often emphasizes its unconventionality saying it was obvious that not writing a novel, which neglects all what the novelist would not have failed to take advantage. He wants to convince the reader that he captures the truth, not a fictional plot. Destroys the fictional illusion that reinforces the sense of reality because the text because of its discontinuity mimetic closer to the human experience. It is this which gives the illusion of reality, the insistence on authenticity, is also what enhances awareness of the artificiality of the text. This advocacy of realism Lilian R. Furst in her article 'Diderot: Jacques le et son maître fatalist' seen as Diderot's satirical attack on excessive actions in adventure stories of the 18th century.
Literature is a mirror of society. It has thousands of threads which can weave the beautiful piece of art. Each thread has its own importance in the creative work. In the same way there are different types of narrative techniques for the narration of literature. Realism, in literature, is an approach that attempts to describe life without idealization or romantic subjectivity.
Reflection has been strongly advocated by the English National Board for Nursing & Midwifery (1994), and a wealth of nursing literature over the past decade had been published to improve nursing practice. Reflection is an in-depth consideration of events or situations outside of one-self, solitary, or with critical support. Burnard (1995) argues that, reflection has its roots in experiential learning, as it forms the second stage of the experiential learning cycle. Active reflection gives nurses the confidence in terms of clinical decision making. It can also be a meaning of identifying strengths and weaknesses in practice and enabling nurses to learn from their mistakes.