Magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI) is used to confirm or rule out brain or brain stem involvement. Clinical symptoms; Symptoms include diarrhea, fever (high temperature), nausea, vomiting and flu-like symptoms. listeriosis is a serious disease in humans; the overt for of the disease has a case fatality rate around 20%. The two main clinical manifestations of the disease are sepsis and meningitis. In the case of meningitis, it is commonly complicated by encephalitis, when it is known as meningoencephalitis, a pathology that is unusual for bacterial infections.  The incubation period can vary and ranges from 3 to 70 days. Characteristics & laboratory identification; Listeria species are gram-positive, rod-shaped, and facultative anaerobes, and do not produce endospores. in microscopy, they have an appearance of small rods, sometimes are in short chain arrangement.
Unvaccinated Amish missionaries who traveled to the Philippines brought measles back to Ohio in May 2014, resulting in 155 infected people as of June 5, 2014. There were 9,149 confirmed and 31,508 suspected cases of measles in the Philippines between Jan. 1 and May 20, 2013. In 2004, there were 37 cases of measles in the United States; in 2014, by May 30, there were 16 measles outbreaks in the United States resulting in at least 334 cases in 18 states. UNICEF reported that, globally, 453,000 children die from rotavirus, 476,000 die from pneumococcus (the virus that causes pneumonia, meningitis, and blood infections), 199,000 die from Hib (a virus that causes pneumonia and meningitis), 195,000 die from pertussis (whooping cough), 118,000 die from the measles, and 60,000 die from tetanus each year, all vaccine-preventable
F.W. Andrews and E. Klein discovered that Clostridium perfringens was associated with food poisoning, and in just a couple years specifically 1892, this microorganism would be found in different types of gangrene, appendicitis, puerperal fever, and enteritis. (3) .. Gas gangrene was very widespread in World War 1, complicating 6% of open fractures and 1% of all open
The same innoculum was used as in the tissue culture series. The innoculated eggs were incubated at 35 degree and transfers made every 5 to 9 days. The tissue material is then drained and pooled, then titration tests are taken. Examples of rickettsial diseases & methods of diagnosis: 1) Rickettsia of the Spotted Fever and Typhus groups: The rickettsial diseases are arranged in many categories from which are the spotted fever and typhus fever groups.
ABSTRACT: Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common worldwide parasitic disease caused by an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. It is commonly transmitted to humans by accidental ingestion of oocysts voided in cat feces or tissue cyst in meat. Congenital transmission may occurs when an uninfected mother acquires primary infection during pregnancy . The acquired infection is usually asymptomatic, while congenital one may lead to abortion, stillbirth or severe abnormalities in the newborn.
The infection has an “incubation period of four to six weeks, in children this may be shorter,” (Mayo). The illness is spread most often by close contact and kissing. Common symptoms include general feeling of being ill, fatigue, sore throat, fever, decreased appetite and headache. As the illness progresses the tonsils swell and develop a whitish-yellow covering and the lymph nodes become more swollen and painful. One of the complications of mononucleosis is a ruptured spleen.
1) Explain: a) What is the difference between Type 1 and Type 2 Herpes Simplex Virus? Type 1 Herpes Simplex virus infects oral mucous membrane. It may causes fever blisters, most adults have antibodies to virus. Most individuals are infected in childhood.
An issue many parents face today with is the common US practice to give all children dozens of vaccinations which may or may not cause side effects ranging from autism to death. Vaccination is the injection of a killed or weakened organism that produces immunity in the body against that organism. On “vactruth.com”, a website devoted to providing the latest articles about child vacinations, writer “Michelle Goldstein” expresses multiple reasons not to vacinate your child. In her article, “10 Reasons Not To Vaccinate”, she argues that all vaccines contain multiple toxic chemicals such as formaldehyde, lead, cadmium, and thimerosal. She claims that all these chemicals can cause serious neurological damage, but Goldstein fails to provide recorded cases in which children have suffered neurological damage as a direct cause of harmful vacine chemicals.
Most children, toddlers and babies put toys and other items in their mouth; everything a child touches automatically has the germs and substances they’ve been touching. It is estimated kid’s toys have an average of 400 colonies of bacteria (Frank). Furthermore, germs are everywhere, and if one person gets an illness then everyone who came in contact with them would have an elevated risk of getting sick. According to the Center for Disease Control, diseases spread quickly among unvaccinated people, mainly children. Viruses that have once injured or killed multiple people now have a vaccine to
The white slough can be easily wiped away to reveal erythematous tissue. Sometimes, there is small amounts of bleeding mucosa underneath. Oral candidiasis is most common in newborn infants, older adults who wear dentures, people with diabetes mellitus, and immunocompromised. Oral candidiasis is not only the most common fungal infection in the mouth but it is the most common human fungal infection. According to Akpan and Morgan, Candida Albicans, a type of fungal species from the Candida genus, has been found in the oral cavity and are: 45% in neonates, 50%–65% of people who wear removable dentures, and 95% of patients with HIV.
Yerisinia Pestis, (commonly referred to as the “Black Plague”) is a virus that spreads through contact. The victims of the virus first would notice swelling under the armpits or in the groin, these sores can become as large as an apple or an egg. The sores begin to spread around the body and then change into a black or red colour. After a few days the host would develop a rash and pain all over the body. The victim would also develop a fever and become lethargic, however, they would find it almost impossible to sleep due to increasing pain.
Additionally, the virus that causes shingles can be spread from a person with active shingles to another person who has never had chickenpox. In such cases, the person exposed to the virus might develop chickenpox, but he or she would not develop shingles. A person is not infectious before the blisters appear, and once the rash has developed crusts, the person is no longer contagious (CDC, 2015). The treatment of shingles includes the use of analgesic like paracetamol, non-steroids anti-inflammatory drugs, opiated, corticosteroids injection, or gabapentin for neuropathic pain. The oral antiviral medication, commonly acyclovir, is usually started in patients with symptoms within 72 hours of the rash.
Most people get infected from a bite of an immature tick, which are close to the size of the head of the pin, making the bite painless and hard to detect at the time of the bite. The transmission of Lyme is more likely the longer the tick is attached. Ticks may stay attached for days if undisturbed, making it more likely to get the
Children under the age of two and older adults who have weak immune systems are at the most risk. Pneumococcal meningitis is harmful and can cause severe brain damage or ca even cause someone to go deaf. Meningococcal meningitis is the second most common form of meningitis and it is caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitides. People at risk for this disease include infants under the age of one, people who travel to foreign countries, freshmen in college who live in the dorms and people with suppressed immune systems. Between 10 and 15 percent of the cases are fatal and 10 to 15 percent up end with brain