In an ever-changing society is common that children grow up in a bilingual family environment. Bilingualism has been a very fascinating and controversial topic in the field of speech perception. In the very beginnings, the lines of research defended that bilingualism creates confusion, which leads to academic
However, the concept of bilingualism is primarly related to the opportunity to explore the facets of life in terms of two languages. At first blush, bilingualism assumes experiencing living in two different worlds, but the problem is when it comes to adjusting to them. Many bilingualists claim the fact that they change their
If languages are used interchangeably in communication, the speaker will have alternately different communication concepts and implications. When we speak a language we often refer to a literary language or a common language. There are many who make confusion between common and the literary
Anna Wierzbicka, the author of the article “Bilingual Lives, Bilingual Experience” is right about the fact that “the vocabulary of emotions is undoubtedly different from language to language” because it depends on how every language expresses certain feelings. Many languages have certain words with no match in another language, like Anna Wierzbicka says: “for example the death of a loved person, can be interpreted by a speaker of Polish through the conceptual category of ‘nieszcze˛s´cie’ and by the speaker of English through the conceptual category of ‘grief’”. Being bilingual suppose switching from a language to another by taking in consideration the culture of that particular language and the way that feelings can be expressed using it. When bilingual people describe emotions, they tend to use words or expressions from their mother tongue because they find no match from the second language. For instance, an Italian who lives in United States of America, although he knows English, he will often use the expression “mamma mia” due to the fact that he finds in his mother tongue a better correspondent for his feeling.
Within the academic environment, the negative impact of high communication apprehension has also been established (cf. McCroskey, 1976; McCroskey, 1977; McCroskey and Andersen, 1976). Students with high communication apprehension, as compared to those with low communication apprehension, have been found to have lower overall college grade-point averages (McCroskey and Andersen. 1976), to evidence lower achievement on standardized tests administered at the completion of high school (Bashore, 1971; McCroskey and Andersen, 1976), to receive lower marks in small classes in junior high school (Hurt, Preiss, and Davis, 1976) and college (Scott and Wheeless. 1976), and to develop negative attitudes toward school in both junior high school (Hurt, Preiss, and Davis, 1976) and college (McCroskey and Sheahan, 1976).
The learners’ understanding of one language, has an impact on personal experience. Transferring the understanding of the native language to the second language, complicates the understanding of the second language. Language has positive and negative influences, the greater the grammar differences between the two languages, the more negative interferences are likely to occur, with effect to grammar, vocabulary, spelling and accents. The relationship between the two languages need consideration to ensure the learner successfully understands and learns the second language
While errors of performance refer to the result of a mistake in language use and indicate themselves as false starts, repetition, corrections or slips of the tongue. It occurs frequently in the speech of both second language learners and native speakers and are what actually occurs in practice. The notion of error analysis is coined by Brown (1980). He states that learners will make errors that can be analyzed, observed and classified to show something about the system that the learners use. That notion leads to the term of error analysis that refers to investigation of the errors made by
Many recent studies have been fixated on the effects of bilingualism on the eloquence of the students in the English language. Consequently, through these varieties of studies conducted, they are able to know that the students’ inferiority in conversing with other people using the English language became more substandard. Moreover, several usual complications faced by the students are apropos of the sentence structures, limitations of vocabularies, and the improper usage of grammar. In schools, some students are undergoing through tough times in conveying their sentiments and notions for they feel mortified about their English competency. Furthermore, they most likely have a lacking conviction in communicating because they are not used to it; this is primarily due to the deprivation of necessary practices.
Language learners ' attitude has been considered one of the important variables which influence second and foreign language acquisition. Ellis (1994), for example, identifies it as one of the personal variables which could have a positive or negative influence on the process of language acquisition. Krashen (1982), further argues that negative attitude could contribute to raising the learners ' affective filter, hence slowing down the language acquisition process. Attitude, hence, is a multidimensional factor that has affective, cognitive and conative constructs (Ghazali, 2008). It incorporates humans ' beliefs and feelings about an issue in addition to the way they deal with it (McGroarty, 1996).
Not only misunderstanding but also can make embarrassment. Therefore, not only verbal but also non-verbal communication is very important for learned. If you fail to read and de-code non-verbal messages, you set yourself up for constant misunderstandings and various communication problems. Nowadays, there are so many people who have more than one language. Most of them are having two or more languages, namely their native language and the second language.