Despite its importance, there is no consensus among researchers on how we should define face. Moreover, the definition of face has been widely debated. I intend to discuss the most salient issues related to the concept of face as it applies to the study of politeness. Goffman’s version of Face Goffman (1967:5) defined face as being: The positive social value a person effectively claims for himself by the line others assume he has taken during a particular contact. Face is an image of self delineated in terms of approved social attributes – albeit an
Critiqued for implying that a client’s culture can be understood by the social worker who reads about cultures and asks questions, but the reality is more complex. Not all customers are themselves familiar with their cultural heritage. (Bartoli, 2013) For some, developing Cultural Competence may be a moral and/or ethical consideration, whilst for others, it may be driven by a sense of commitment to political and stated norms of the
Politeness is a hard concept to define, but in the opinion of many scholars such as Leech (1983), Brown and Levinson (1987) and Terkourafi (2004) constitutes one of the most important aspects of human interpersonal communication. In order to at least generally explain how politeness works and how it is achieved in interaction, Geoffrey Leech, in 1983, proposed his Principle of Politeness (PP from now on). Leech takes as his point of departure Grice’s Cooperative Principle and its maxims, and considers them useful when it comes to figuring out the difference between the sense and the force of an utterance, but ineffectual at the level of understanding why people employ politeness when communicating . In general, Leech claims, people tend to make confusion between what he calls “relative politeness” and “absolute politeness”. Moreover, he observes, politeness is culturally bounded as every culture possesses its own concept and degrees of politeness in language use.
The notion(s) of politeness For a reason that will be made explicit subsequently, it may be helpful to begin with a dictionary definition of ‘politeness’, or all the more easily,‘polite’: Polite, adjective  Having or indicating conduct that is respectful and considerate of other individuals: they thought she was not right but were too polite to say so.  [attrib.] relating to individuals who see themselves as more cultured and refined than others: the image angered polite community. The Concise Oxford English Dictionary (2004). Even from such a brief abstraction of regular utilization of the notion, it is clear that politeness does not have a quiet unambiguously value.
The advocates of culture in conflict resolution such as Stephen Weiss (1994) and Glen Fisher (1980) believe that that culture affects negotiations and mediation because there is a logical chain between culture and human behaviour and perceptions which in turn has an impact on their decision making style. Bercovitch and Elgström also, stress the importance of culture in conflict resolution. They noted that “culture can also influence negotiations regardless of misunderstandings: it affects the positions as well as the strategies of the conflict parties” . On the other hand, some scholars oppose the argument that culture plays a crucial role in conflict resolution. They explained that mediation and conflict resolution is a ‘universal diplomatic culture’, which in turn minimises the impact of individual national cultures .
Etiquette is the fruit of manners, and it deals directly with kindness, consideration, elegance and style. “Etiquette involves putting others first, but not necessarily putting yourselves down. Etiquette should flow out of a gracious and kind heart and not be rigidly followed like a set of commandments.” (Bickerstaff Glover, n.d.). Etiquette is more realized then caught, and the customs may vary from one culture to another (Bickerstaff Glover,
Being polite is vital to successful communication, nowadays. In accordance with Oxford dictionary, politeness is defined as “good manners and respect for the feelings of others”, however, in the field of linguistics, the notion of politeness is further complex and regarded as one of the most key terms to define. Linguists advocated that “politeness is […] a dynamic concept, always open to adaptation and change in any group, in any age, and indeed, any moment of time. It is not a socio-anthropological given which can be simple applied to the analysis of social interaction, but actually arises out of that interaction” (Watts, 2003). Over decades, this concept has received various amount of attention from many linguists with a large number of books, research and articles concerning politeness have been published.
Title Politeness Strategy among the Characters in a Short Story Delible Ink on Paper by M. Stanley Bubbien (1999) Background of the Study In interacting with other people, there are some regulations to be applied. Those regulations are applied to avoid us hurting one’s feeling. Those regulation will also help us consider another’s feeling in communicating with them. Those social regulations can be in its written or spoken forms. People who can fulfil those regulation is considered as polite.
According to Megan Wittorp in her article “There’s A Difference between Being Blunt and Being Rude” she explains that most people typically use the word “Blunt” to express their straightforwardness and honesty, they often take great pride in this trait when they speak their mind without wavering, and they don’t realize or choose not to accept the fact that it is not an acceptable excuse for disrespect.” (Wittorp). When a person is being blunt and honest, they must care about the other person’s feeling; they should not speak without consideration; if they do that means they are not being blunt; they are just plainly disrespectful with a poorly thought out opinion and expression. “Bluntness” is no excuse for
Nonverbal communication includes a number of gestural clues and vocal clues know as paralanguage. Also, it is important to understand that the way a person is acting and reacting is conducted by where he comes from, which means that to know differences between culture can help understand a stranger’s reaction. In fact, some people see different meanings in a same gesture, and this might be complicate for any person in the law enforcement field to decode because this multiculturalism today a part of every society. On the other it will be the same for the person standing in front of that person of