1. INTRODUCTION Feminism foresees a genderless area where women should be perceived as equal to males. Femininity has been socially crafted due to the idea that men are perceived superior above women. Open-minded feminism quarrels that gender contrasts are not established in biology hence on the society’s comprehension of gender. Women and men are not disparate as they are both able to envision therefore no variation of gender ought to be imposed.
The Gender attributes importance is defined as how significant sex stereotypes are their sex identity. Homophobic is linked with traditional views of gender roles and since birth we are subjected to gender stereotypes. Such as pink is for girls, blue is for boys. Ballet is for girls, rugby is for boys. Dolls are for girls, trucks are for boys.
Brief Summary Aaron Devor discusses the patriarchally-expected gender roles of today’s society. He delves into the discussion of femininity versus masculinity. Society associates femininity with weakness, whilst associating masculinity with greatness. Furthermore, Aaron sheds light on today’s societal gender norms. He explains that men must be seen as the providers, while women are seen as caregivers.
Increasing exposure of various male masculinity ideals in media has led to men comparing themselves with such examples, causing them to despise their own natural physique and suffer from depression (Agliata and Tantleff-Dunn 2004). Various subtypes of male gender identification such as metrosexual and heterosexual identities have had significantly influenced male body appearance. “Man-scaping” and body contouring has gained momentum, with male population indulging themselves in beauty product consumerism. This recent trend has been a result of rampant advertisement of male body hair as “unhealthy” and “less attractive.” This trend also draws its influence from a general conception of body depilation as a symbol of status in upper and middle class. Some articles have even stated body hair as medical health issue, and recommend body hair removal and trimming.
While for long time women have taken centre stage and have been pushing for women’s right and equality in a largely male dominated society. We forget that it is not only the women’s identity which is warped and under heavy scrutiny of the man-made categories that we have created but men as well. So when asking various men and women and questioning them on how they defined masculinity, they were left silently confused and unsure what they had to say. However, they answered it along the similar lines, “by possessing qualities traditionally attributed to men, such as aggressiveness.” Or “having qualities regarded as characteristic of men and boys, as strength, vigour, boldness, etc. ; manly” When asked about what traits fall under ideal masculinity, they stated the following traits
In addition, the existence of such resistance—i.e. the intersex not only disrupts the heteronormative ‘truth’ constructed through apparatus such as medical institutions in consolidating the male/female sex as binary opposition of truth, but poses members to question the male/female body and their essentiality. Moreover, in the case of the intersex, their existence presents society with not only an alternative body, but also threatens the heteronormative narrative of bodies as ‘natural’ embodiment of sex, acknowledging that ‘sex’ is merely social construct and the body is just an ‘inscriptive surface’ for masculinity, culture, and discourse to inscript and reinscript and assert its power as mentioned by Reeser (Reeser 91). Hence, the intersex are marginalised and asserted as a medical condition. An intersex, by definition describes a medical condition of individuals whose exterior genitalia does not synchronise with interior (chromosomes, hormones, internal sex organs).
The media and advertising are at fault for how gender is portrayed on adverts they create gender roles which the public perceive as the correct way to behave. Lips (2001: p14) said that Gender role refers to the attitudes, behaviour, and activities that are socially defined as appropriate for each sex & are learned through the socialization process. This has all created a gender stereotype. The media are a forceful source of gender stereotyping. In adverts women are portrayed as the unintelligent consumer, socially conscious of her purchases, dependant on men and sex objects whereas men are perceived as a figure of authority, handy men and intelligent decision makers.
The concept of hegemonic masculinity was influenced by the sex role theory and psychoanalysis. It is stated that the masculinities discussed by the theory of sex-role need to be regarded as hegemonic masculinity that may not be the usual type of masculinity (Connell, 1990). According to a definition provided by Connell and Messerschmidt (2005), hegemonic masculinity refers to a normative type of masculinity enacted by a part of men. “It embodied currently the most honored way of being a man (Connell and Messerschmidt, 2005)”. Besides, the concept of hegemonic masculinity is highly related to power and class.
The power in their relationship does not come from their gender or social standing, but their character. Feminist critic Janet Adelman has commented that Coriolanus gets his power from Volumnia; his ‘masculine’ strength is created from hers. A gender role is a set of societal norms that dictates which types of
It is so deeply embedded in our culture that a change in the former is more difficult to attain than a change in the latter. According to her, a sexual revolution would bring to an end the institution of patriarchy and the ideology of male supremacy. Germaine Greer’s The Female Eunuch (1970) makes a vehement attack on the stereotyping and fixed gender roles to which women are conditioned. According to her, “the female is considered a sexual object for the use and appreciation of other sexual beings, men. Her sexuality is both denied and misrepresented by being identified as passivity .