In the case of Tunisia, the trade reform started in1987. Imports have been liberalized to promote the domestic production, to strengthen competition, and thereby to increase the economy's efficiency. This program continued in 1996; it was also extended to a number of agricultural products. With respect to trade co-operation, agreements have been signed or revived to stimulate trade, particularly with Morocco, Algeria and Egypt. The liberalization of the telecommunications sector under WTO signatory commitments has played an important role in Tunisia’s economic development.
7.4.1 MEASURES INITIATED BY INDIAN GOVERNMENT TOWARDS LIBERALIZATION: Deregulation of Industrial Sector: In India, regulatory mechanisms were enforced in various ways. The following policies before liberalization were: i. Industrial licensing under which every entrepreneur had to get permission from government officials to start a firm or to decide the amount of goods that could be produced. ii. Private sector was not allowed in many industries iii.
After Deng's death in 1997, Jiang Zemin and Zhu Rongji handpicked by deng continued the reforms and became ardent reformers. Steeper reforms toward privatization have taken place since the government decided to “let go of the small and hold on to the large” in 1997. In 1998, large-scale privatization occurred, in which all state enterprises, except a few large monopolies, were liquidated and ther assets sold to private investors. By 2000, more than 80 percent of small and medium-sized enterprises completed their transformation through ownership diversification, which includes restructuring, mergers, leasing, contracting, joint-stock companies, and bankruptcies. Publicly listed companies are mostly large ones.
45) in their recent study, point out that in an emerging financial market, liberalization processes can have a significant negative impact on the stability of the domestic financial intermediation institutes. This is not an outcome of changes in the overall competition levels between the financial intermediaries but a result of an increase in the plurality of risk taking opportunities for the financial intermediaries. This negative impact that comes as a result of the financial liberalization programmes can be changed into a positive impact if more prudent capital regulations are
This is basically due to lack of standardized method of assessing and collecting such taxes. Kiabel (2014) divided the history of taxation in Nigeria into three eras: Pre-colonial, Colonial and Post-Colonial. In the Pre-colonial era, the Eastern Province, not having constituted monarchical system, hardly practiced standard taxation. Roads and other community projects were
Since returning to democratic governance in 1999, one of the greatest threat to the unity of the Nigerian Nation has been spate of violent internal crisis which has greatly stunted economic growth. The immediate effects of the violence on the people is evident. People have been killed, displaced, property destroyed, schools closed down and people have been put out of productive actives in the affected areas. Human capacity building in the affected areas has been greatly undermined with serious immediate negative repercussions and more salient effects transcending into the future. Violent civil conflict creates uncertainty which can distort private investment decision, government policy and allocation of resources and education which will in the long run impede human capital accumulation and lower economic
Also, Successive Nigerian governments operate an urban-bias developmental policy in which basic amenities and infrastructure are located in the urban centers. As a result, young rural dwellers are pulled thus; push the facilities in the urban areas beyond the breaking points. It is important to note that economic factors provide sufficient conditions and reasons for rural-urban migration, which eventually lead to integration. In contemporary Nigeria, it is an obvious fact that the primary and secondary school leavers and even university graduates find it difficult to secure job in the labor market especially those who study in the rural
PROLONGED EFFECTS OF COLONIALISM ON DEMOCRACY IN IGBO LAND (NIGERIA) It is not disputable that British colonial establishment prior to their disengagement in Nigeria established ‘western democracy’ in Nigeria. Also, according to Coleman (1971), "undeniably, the greatest contribution the British have made to Nigerian unity is the pacification of the country, the establishment of central police forces, and the maintenance of a minimum standard of justice" (p.45). Manolov (2012) cited in Özcan and Rigakos (2014), posits that “pacification came to connote bombing people into
It blamed it on repeated attempt to remedy the situation with policy instruments that are irrelevant, ill advised and not suited for an economy like Nigeria’s. Often times, these policy instruments are recommendation from international organizations without proper knowledge of the modus operandi of the Nigerian economy.SAP, structurally adjustment program, implemented in the late 80’s comes to mind. This was a policy seen by many as been imposed on the country to curb its unemployment situation and help kick start its economy. A key feature of this handed down policy was regulation of employment in the public service (i.e. a massive limit on staff strength)38.This was done without taking cognizance of the fact that the public service was a key employment sector for the country and without first providing alternative job possibilities.