The depletion of biodiversity will have profound consequences for the functioning of ecosystem services. For example, the loss of tropical forests will probably result in a reduction in carbon storage, an increase in atmospheric pollution and reductions in human health (Mace et al., 2012). The significance of biodiversity for human wellbeing has long been recognised, however biodiversity loss at the global scale continues (Cardinale et al., 2012). Biodiversity is threatened by several human-induced processes, among which are land use changes, invasive species and climate change (Trakhtenbrot et al., 2005). Land use changes, such as landscape modification and habitat fragmentation, are believed to have a negative impact on almost all taxonomic groups (Fisher & Lindenmayer, 2007).
Factors Affecting Macroinvertebrate Diversity and Occurrence There are ecological factors regulating the distribution of macroinvertebrates (Hussain, Q.A). Water current, temperature, substrate, drainage basin land use/land cover, vegetation, pH of water, drought, flood, food, shade and stream geomorphology. Water current shows difference among aquatic animals according to its characteristics, either flowing water or a still water (Hussein). According to Steinnman, anatomical features of aquatic animals are influenced from their habitat due to adaptation (Hussein). Temperature is also an important ecological factor.
1995, Kunin and Lawton 1996, Schwartz et al. 2000, Hector et al. 2001b, Minns et al. 2001, Sax and Gaines 2003). These explanations are persuasive in their own right, but ecologists have increased some additional to deal with, like what would be the resultant of alteration of biodiversity on ecosystem properties, such as productivity, carbon storage, hydrology, and nutrient cycling?
In order to address these issues, we need to understand first what natural resources mean. Natural resources occur naturally on earth in a natural form. It is often described as the amounts of biodiversity existent in various ecosystems. Some natural resources are essential for our survival while others are supplementary. On the basis of their origin, natural resources are classified in two ways: Biotic – Biotic resources are obtained from the biosphere.
LCA applications LCA is a tool to manage the environment, thus it provides a picture of the interactions between activities with the environment. The two main objectives for LCA are to quantify and evaluate the environmental performance of a product or a process and the second objective is to provide a basis for assessing potential improvements in the environmental performance of the system. Both objectives helps decision makers to choose among alternatives and to suggest designs with minimum environmental
According to the convention of biological diversity "Biological diversity means the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems” The important question however, is can we put a value on biodiversity? The total value in many ways is infinite. Earth’s economies “would grind to a halt, without the services of ecological life-support systems” (Costanza et al 97). According to Freeman. (1998) to understand the true value of something, one must first define what that thing is and what the world would possibly be like without that particular entity.
Increasing demands for land for urban, agricultural, and industrial use in turn promotes deforestation. Next, pollution contributes to wildlife destruction greatly. Environmental pollution can take several forms some of which are air, water, and soil pollution. For example, human sewage and industrial waste which run-off into rivers and oceans can have significant health and
The term ecotourism has been variously defined. However, the phrase was first introduced by Ceballos-Lascuran (1993), whom emphasized the importance of natural areas as ‘travelling to relatively undisturbed or uncontaminated natural areas with specific objective of studying, admiring and enjoying the scenery and its wild plants and animals as well as any existing cultural manifestations’ (Fennel, 1999). Thus, ecotourism is a complex phenomenon with a combination of various actors and multiple functions (Ceballos-Lascuran, 1993). Ecotourism lies on several principles in relation to a sustainable industry. In short, ecotourism should be managed in an environmentally manner as to produce long-term benefits to the resource, local community and industry.
This principle involve not just productive agriculture, but also reducing our energy use and pollution. We should support the development of efficient and sustainable agriculture, but we must bear in mind that it is only part of a border solution. Sustainability of agriculture can be defined as the appropriate use of crop and livestock systems and encourage activities which maintain social viability, economic and at the same time preserve the land quality and productivity. While the technology can provide more food sources, it should not be detrimental to the human health or to change the traditional behavioural system. Criticism is against technology in general, and consideration needs to be balance.
Environment includes all the physical and biological surroundings and their interactions. Thus, in order to study environment one needs knowledge inputs from various disciplines:- Life sciences including botany, zoology, microbiology, genetics etc, help in understanding the biotic component and their interactions. Subjects like physics, chemistry, geography, geology etc helps in understanding the physical and chemical structure of the abiotic components and energy transfer and flow. Mathematics, statistics and computer science serve as effective tools in environmental modeling and management. Economics, sociology and mass communication provide inputs for dealing with the socio-economic aspects associated with various developmental activities.