Collaborative learning is an umbrella term for a diversity of educational approaches involving joint intellectual effort by students and teachers together. Students are working in groups of two or more, communally searching for understanding, solutions, or meanings, or creating a product. The activities diverge widely, but most center on students’ exploration or application of the course material, not simply the teacher’s presentation or explication of it (Smith, B.L. and J. MacGregor, 1992). Collaborative learning is an educational approach to teaching that involves groups of learners working together to solve a problem (Laal & Laal 2012).
Thus, there is no single, complete definition of active learning. However, a clarification of the term comes from Bonwell (1991) where he states that in active learning, students are the active participants during the learning process, thus students are doing something instead of passively listening to their teacher. The most commonly cited definition of active learning comes from Bonwell and Eison (1991, p 2) “Active learning is anything that involves students in doing things and thinking about what they are doing.” The authors emphasized that students must engage in activities that involve reading, writing, discussing, or problem solving and students must reflect on what has been learned. Active learning is like an umbrella that refers to different methods of teaching that focus the accountability of learning on students (Devi, 2014). Similarly, Paulson and Faust (2011) viewed active learning as any activities that
Educational Context is for any school subject while Cultural Context is for something not relevant to most school subjects. The cultural context is described in ones attitudes, beliefs, personality, characteristics, ideals and expectations (Gardner, 2007). Therefore, in order to show the product of language learning, the learner will be having different attitudes portrayed in applying the language learning. Easily said, the cultural context gives an impact towards the success of an individual in learning the L2. Educational context is where the education system in which the student is registered and shows performance in classroom situation that could influence on the student’s level of motivation in any school
Based on SDH Students Assessment Policy, formative assessment is assessment for learning and it is interwoven with learning. Formative assessment provides information that is used in order to plan the next stage in learning. Formative assessment aims to promote learning by giving regular and frequent feedback from the teacher, such as excellent, very good, good, or practice more. There was no numerical score in formative assessment, and it was help students to learn the process of studying, not too obsess to numerical score and compare their score each other. Summative assessment is the culmination of the teaching and learning process, and gives the students opportunities to demonstrate what has been learned, as stated on SDH Student Assessment Policy.
Active learning approaches are intended to make the students active participants in their own learning rather than passive learners. Many individual learn best and become capable in skills by participating instead of being an observer to the skills (Hermin and Toth, 2006). There are different types of active learning approaches that teachers can use in teaching science. According to Momani, Asiri, and Alatawi (2016, p. 21), “active learning approaches are designed to take students out of their books, sometimes out of their seats, and sometimes out of their familiar ways of thinking.” When implementing the approaches of active learning teacher must consider listening to learners, encouraging open discussion, accepting learners’ ideas, allowing time to think, providing immediate feedbacks, establishing trust relations between learner and teacher so, that students feel free to share their ideas and opinions which ultimately have impact on students’ learning (Zaidi, 2008). Some of the
Case Study Taking this as the central idea, we designed class lessons that asked students to use their intuitional knowledge and comprehension about percentages and proportions to relevant problems. Real and conceivable settings were developed that we hoped would connect with students’ familiarity and motivate them to involve in problem-solving behaviours. Most significantly, we hoped that classroom dialogue (of both students and teachers) would demonstrate and support self-regulating
To achieve that, teachers may consider varying their questioning techniques. Careful selection of a variety of pedagogical tasks is believed to encourage classroom participation and enrich students’ learning experience (AlKandari, 2012). Instead of having a teacher-directed discussion on a selected topic as illustrated in the scenario, instructors may arrange small-group discussion among students themselves such that the majority of the class are engaged. AlKandari (2012) points out that small-group discussion provides a platform where students exchange information and experiences and their intellectual and interpersonal skills are enhanced through such an exchange. To facilitate the effectiveness of small-group discussion, tutors may assign each group member a role or an area to focus on and then distribute some written materials to return back so that each student in the group is equally involved in the discussion and the written materials also provide a proof that students are actually working on-task (AlKandari,
This model focuses on asking and answering questions to learn about the subject being presented. Inquiry training allows students to ask questions about a subject and through experimentation, answer those questions. Through experimentation, carefully guided by the teacher, students learn strategies that can be used, like concept attainment, in later learning in life and in the classroom (Mohr, 2010). Inquiry training model has five phases. The first phase is the students’ introduction with the puzzling situation or problem.
Richard J Stiggins (1987) stated that “Performance assessments are valuable tools for measuring communication skills such as reading, writing, speaking and listening” (p.34). This assessment is more valid compare to other method of assessment because it’s requires students to demonstrate what they know. Performance assessment is the direct observation. Teacher can observe their students during assessment whether they can perform a task or not. Students are
Independent learning is when an individual is able to think, act and pursue their own studies autonomously, without the same levels of support they would receive from a teacher in school. There are certain approaches to independent learning, one of which is self-directed learning. Self-directed learning is a type of instructional strategy where students take charge of their learning process, they decide what and how they will learn with guidance from the teacher. It can be done individually or with group learning but the overall concept is that the students take ownership of their learning, formulating their own goals and evaluating their learning outcomes. The other approach is known as Discovery and Inquiry, in this approach