Pulse field electrophoresis is used for the separation of larger fragments of DNA. These fragments result from digesting a bacterial genome with a rare-cutting restriction enzyme. The pattern of DNA produced on the gel is used to differentiate different strains of bacteria. For the identification of individuals like humans or other organisms, Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RELP) analysis has turn out to be very practical. After isolation of DNA from the source it is digested enzymatically with the help of restriction endonucleases.
This can help in diagnostic of disease as well as in the researches. Both the quantitative and qualitative polymerase chain reaction can distinguish the genes involved in the development of cancer, which can helps in the treatment due to the fact that these genes are able to determine the progression of the disease and an impact in the effectiveness of the
Indirect ELISA The term "indirect ELISA" refers to an ELISA in which the antigen is bound by the primary antibody, which then is detected by an enzyme labeled secondary antibody. The Secondary antibodies were raised against the primary antibody in other species of animal by immunization. The indirect ELISA has advantages over the direct ELISA. 1) The Indirect ELISA consist mainly two antigen – antibody reactions; the first reaction is between coated antigen and primary antibody and a second reaction between the primary antibody and the enzyme-labeled secondary antibody (with reference to secondary antibody the primary antibody is an antigen). Therefore, when the secondary antibody is enzyme tagged instead of primary antibody the amplified
J. Public Health, 58:296). It can also be used to demonstrate motility of bacteria. Fluid medium is mainly used as enrichment media. An example is blood culture medium (BHI, TSB or Thioglycolate) media that allows growth and multiplication of bacteria which is indicated by turbidity.
Is an immunoglobulin antibodies produced by the immune system in response to the presence of a specific antigen. Antibodies formed based on antigens that menginduksinya. Some antibodies that have been identified are IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. An antigen is a substance or a substance that can stimulate the immune system and can react specifically with antibodies conjugated to form complexes. Antibody-antigen bond visualized using a compound label /
Stem Cell Therapy Stem cell therapy is widely used to treat and prevent diseases. Most common type is bona marrow transplant. It is a process in which stem cells are extracted from a healthy individual and targeted at the damaged tissue in order to repair it. Stem cells are used because of their ability for self-renewal is magnificent where they can be used to target any type of tissue. Risk of rejection is minimised when using stem cell therapy as ones own stem cells can be
After one cycle of PCR ,two copies of DNA strand are produced and after two cycles , four copies of DNA strand are produced and so on. It multiplies after each cycle and make number of copies of DNA strands from single DNA. The end result is an exponential increase in the total number of DNA fragments that include the sequences between the PCR primers, which are finally represented at a theoretical abundance of 2n. Almost 20-30 cycles can be carried out in one hour. PCR applications are helpful in diagnosis of majority of hereditary or non heritable diseases, this technique is also applied in molecular biology and microbiology to identify certain bacteria and viruses that can cause serious health problems.
In the statistical analyses of exposure-outcome associations, reverse causality was checked when it could be a possible explanation for the observed associations. Additionally, we appropriately identified adjustment covariates by causal graphs of the DAGs. This helps to understand the relationships between the variables in each study and also help control for bias of effect estimates. Moreover, this investigation is the first time the novel treelet transform statistical approach will be applied to oral bacteria data. The important strengths of this method in investigation of high-dimensional data, particularly in terms of interpretability of the generated components, stability of components and application in further analyses  is
It is this feature that is main pathogenic characteristic of severe malaria. Adherence can occur to multiple organs (examples: lung, kidney, heart, liver, and brain) and occurs when the parasite is in its mature stage, either asexual form or gametocytes. Adherence occurs once RBCs have been infected. The parasite produces proteins that are transported to the surface of the infected RBC. This protein increases the adhesiveness of the RBC, allowing it to easily stick to the endothelium of the tissue it is nearest to.
This bacteria’s ability to develop resistances is due to mutation and due to the high chance of developing resistances, it often leads to serious infections. The researchers have mentioned that some strains and isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa have integrins that caused it to develop resistances to all reliable antibiotics due to the integrins possessing gene cassettes that encodes both carbapenemases and amikacin acetyltransferases.3 Pseudomonas aeruginosa can develop a virulence factor known as “biofilm”. Biofilm, as the researchers have mentioned, have several stages of development. First is reversible attachment, next is the irreversible attachment, third is first stage of maturation, then the second stage of maturation and finally dispersion. Biofilm cells have been observed to change motility, produce alginates and quorum sensing during the development of the