Sadly, only a certain minority manipulates this income, this lead to rural poverty. Rural poverty refers to poverty found in rural areas. The Rural Poverty Portal stated that two out of three parts or rural areas in Central America are poor, also, stated that half of its population is situated below the poverty line. Most of them cannot afford the basic needs to live. The country that is more affected with rural poverty is Honduras, with 75% of its population living in rural poverty.
Plantation theorists though, argued that these MNCs ended up draining capital from the local economy through the repatriation of profits, and promoted dependency on imported inputs and on capital-intensive technology. This they say was why the policy posited by Lewis of promoting foreign investment had failed to solve the unemployment problem. A major difference between the models is the way they dealt with the economic status quo. Lewis was described by Sankatsing (1989) as ‘pragmatic’, he took the existing economy as a starting point, and instead of questioning it he recorded and analyzed the problems and then developed a theoretical model geared towards the outline of an economic strategy. The proponents of the plantation economy model on the other hand questioned the status quo, looked for the underlying causes in a historic, structural, institutional approach and focused on the evolution of the Caribbean economies.
From 1980 to 2011, the amount of irrigation water required for corn fields decreased by 53%. For cotton, the amount decreased by 75%. Soybeans, rice, and potatoes all saw drops of at least 38%. Even wheat fields saw a 12% decrease in irrigation water consumption when planted with GMO crops compared to traditional
Migration is East Africa is mainly driven by factors such as civil and political strife, natural disaster like drought and cross border movement between groups of people who were separated by colonial demarcation to the continent. Countries in the East African region are believed to have low levels of migration compared to other regions on the continent. Currently, the number of migrants from Eastern Africa is estimated to be fewer than 7 million worldwide out of the region’s estimated total population of around 315 million (Martin and Bonfanti 2015). This represents 2.2% of the region’s total population, well below the world average migration rate of 3.3% (Martin and Bonfanti 2015). Furthermore of this figure, more than two thirds are said to have settled in mostly neighbouring countries in the region and other African countries (South-South migration).
CHAPTER FOUR 4.0 RESULT AND DISCUSSION 4.1 SOCIO ECONOMIC CHARATERICTICS OF THE RESPONDENTS The frequency and percentage distribution of some important variables are presented in this section; these variables include sex, age, marital status, household size, farming experience, main occupation, educational level, mode of land acquision, crop grown, farm size, source of capital etc. 4.1.0: Sex of cassava farmer One hundred and fifty, (150) question items was produced. These were administered to respondents and only 80% of the questionnaires were returned since the respondents were not able to answer them in the field. This showed that 80% of the sampled
In a study of French environmental policy for the agricultural sector, Petit concludes that ‘if Europeanization can increase problem-solving capacity, member state institutions continue to produce divergent solutions. Therefore, Europeanization does not necessarily accord with harmonization… Finally, Europeanization is not political integration. Typically, theories of integration address the question ‘why do different countries join forces and build up supranational institutions’? Europeanization would not exist without European integration. But the latter concept belongs to the ontological stage of research, that is, the understanding of a process in which countries pool sovereignty, whereas the former is post-ontological, being concerned with what happens once EU institutions are in place and produce their effects.
The agriculture sector in India has undergone significant structural changes in past few decades. The share of agriculture in GDP has decreased from 30 percent in 1990-91 to 14.5 percent in 2010-11 indicating a shift from the traditional agrarian economy towards a service dominated one (Fig 1.1). The Green Revolution transformed the economy from a chronic food deficient to a self sufficient economy. By the year 2000 there were mounting surplus of food grains. The per capita availability of foodgrains increased as shown in fig1.2 Fig 1.1: Sectoral Composition of GDP Fig 1.2 Per Capita Availability of Cereals and Pulses Source: DES, DAC.
The sector has stagnated since the introduction of the SAP and the loosening of import controls, and the 1990-1997 period has been characterized by “a lack of industrial development.” Zimbabwe’s real GDP per capita fell by 5.8% during 1991-1996 and total private investment fell by 9% between 1991-1996. Employment growth in manufacturing fell from 3% during 1985 -1990 to -3% in 1999 - 2000. Real wages declined by 26% between 1991-96 to the point where even those with full-time jobs were no longer guaranteed a living wage; food prices rose faster than other consumer prices, having the greatest impact on the rural poor. Farmers have been hurt by high interest rates, the removal of subsidies on agricultural inputs and a reduction of government spending on roads and transport systems. The price of fertilizer has shoot up 300% in five years
Kijima (2011) showed that about 50% of farmers who adopted the high yielding rice variety (NERICA) in Uganda in 2002 abandoned the variety within the first two years. Using a panel survey of 347 households, Kijima pointed to the relatively low profitability of rice in comparison to other agricultural products, distances to rice milling centres, and consequently higher costs of marketing as the reasons for the high dis-adoption rates. On the other hand, Sserunkuuma (2005), based on a survey of 450 households, examined the reasons for low adoption of maize varieties in Uganda and found that participation in agricultural extension programmes was a key determinant of adoption of maize varieties.
Agriculture has been the backbone of the Ghanaian economy until recently where the production and expansion of the oil sector, has shrunk the agriculture sector in relative terms (Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research (ISSER), 2013, 2014). Agriculture contributes around 22% to GDP, employs 45.5% of the population on a formal and informal basis and contributes approximately 45% of all export earnings (Ashitey, 2012; ISSER, 2013; ISSER, 2014). Ghana’s agriculture is vastly dominated by smallholders; many commodities, including cocoa, maize, cassava and yam are produced predominantly on small farms. According to Chamberlin (2007), more than 70% of Ghanaian farms are 3 hectares (ha) or smaller in size and cocoa and maize represent the two most cultivated crops in Ghana by smallholder farmers (MiDA, 2010; Asuming-Brempong et al., 2007). Cocoa takes a remarkable position in Ghana’s economy since it has long played an important role in Ghana’s economic development and remains an important source of rural work.