Recently, this form of aggression was described as the underlying factor for recent suicides of some adolescents. Relational aggression can be direct or indirect. Direct Relational aggression behaviors defined as the use of confrontational strategies to damage social relationships, include deliberately ignoring someone, threatening to withdraw friendship or support, and excluding someone from a group by telling him or her that he or she is not welcome (Xie, Swift, Cairns & Cairns, 2002). Indirect behaviors are behaviors that attempt to damage someone’s relationships but do not involve direct interaction with that person. Such behaviors include gossiping, starting rumors, and stealing friends or romantic partners (Crothers, Field, & Kolbert,
Biologically, aggressiveness sources by the instinct of self-preservation and self-survival. It manifests as a reaction whenever safety of an individual is threatened. b) Aggressiveness as effect of social interventions (social learning theory). This theory refers that social factors , circumstances and prototypes are responsible for the development of an aggressive behavior. (Bandura, 1973;Zacharis,2003) It is important to mention that aggressiveness is categorized into three classes (Hunt, 1993; Bushman & Anderson, 2001;Walker, 2010;Del Vecchio, 2001).
Assertiveness ‘represents a way of thinking and behaving that allows a person to stand up for his or her rights while respecting the rights of others’ hence it is a powerful skill all managers to communicate better. It is also very important to distinguished between assertiveness is taken as aggression since sometimes these are confused, which will lead to misdirection and frustration. I am developing this skill initially through experiential learning, since it is through experience where you lean the most, obviously if you are willing to learn. Practically, I am trying to voice my opinion more, in a calm and confident way. I am also focusing on non-verbal assertive
It is not situations that cause us to become upset with ourselves, it is our interpretations if the meaning of those events. How we react especially when the situation has an element of personal conflict with another person, in turn defines how we view ourselves Learning to behave assertively can be life-changing and while you may not yet have acquired these skills you will now understand how superior assertiveness is to other forms of dialogue and actions in potentially difficult situations. If you do not already possess these skills, and most people with poor self-esteem do not, then you need to practise a great deal. Learning to deal with daunting situations by planning ahead, rather than relying on instinct, will develop your self-esteem.
I came to a conclusion, where there were three main factors that led to the interpersonal problems. The first factor is the lack of confidence towards other. The second factor is the directness of my way of expression. The third factor is the egocentrism personality I
‘An attitude is an overall evaluation that expresses how much we like or dislike an object, issue, person, or action’ (Hoyer, Maclnnis and Pieters 2013, p.128) According to Hoyer, Maclnnis and Pieters (2013), attitudes can divide in terms of five main characteristics that include favorability, attitude accessibility, attitude confidence, persistence, and resistance. Favorability refers to how much we like or dislike an attitude object. Attitude accessibility refers to how easily and readily an attitude can be retrieved from
Externalizing Behaviour Internalizing Behavior Internalizing behaviors are negative, problematic behaviors that are directed towards the self. People with internalizing behaviors have difficulty coping with negative emotions or stressful situations, so they direct their feelings inward. For example, a young boy may respond to a being
Therefore, attitude deals with a way via which one behaves towards someone or in a situation, in particular, when this indicates how someone feels. Although they have received a fundamental importance in many recent studies, not all the aspects and features of attitude
It says "standing up for your personal rights," Vis-à-vis in conveying your opinion, beliefs, or feelings. Moreover, an assertive person is considerate and respectful with other people beliefs, feelings and thoughts On other hand, possessing an assertive skill is important in business because it is the best defense against dirty competitions. If an entrepreneur believes the product of his company then he should uphold it. According to GreatFxPrinting website being an assertive does not mean to be aggressive. However, it is the ability to say "no" with confidence and in respectful manner.
Attitudes indicate the affective of the writers to propositions, surprising, confirmation, frustration rather than commitment . Verbs like, (agree , prefer) , Adverbs (unfortunatlly, hopefully) and Adjectives (appropriate, logical and remarkable) are used in text to indicate attitudes marker for conveying surprise , Agreement and frustration . 2.3. Appraisal Theory and Function According to Wan (2008 , p. 2) ,” appraisal theory is a tool for evaluating attitudinal meanings in texts in a systemic way”. Appraisal is an approach to explore the way that language is used to manage interpersonal positioning and relationship .