Students should have a good understanding of the assessment marking criteria. The design of these marking criteria involves the discussion of learning outcomes. The implementation of self-assessment involves a lot of effort, reflection and planning on behalf of the tutor. Students should be made to perceive self-assessment as a natural process in their learning. They should be actively involved in its implementation and its importance in lifelong learning.
Formative, summative, traditional, alternate are ways of assessment. Research shows that it is important to use multiple assessments to test a students ability, Walt Honey, 1991, quoted in Assessment as Learning by Lorna Earl, 2003). Conventional and alternative assessment task are the two main domain of assessment types. Conventional which is also known as traditional assessment is a component of summative assessment which will be tested to provide final feedback to stakeholders about learners achievement. It also help teachers to assign grades and determine learner's current ability.
Assessments: peer and self-assessment are crucial in providing opportunity to metacognitive thinking about education, in addition to assess own progression for meaningful productive feedback. 5. Established learning: teacher and student roles in the learning process should be established. Teachers need to create an environment where student can establish trust and mutual respect, as well as experience harmless constructive feedback. As defined by Bell & Cowie (2001), there are nine characteristics of formative assessment: responsiveness; source of evidence; tacit process; use of professional knowledge and experience; integral measures between teaching and learning; assessments by teacher and student; purpose; appropriateness of process; and predicaments.
Norm-referenced tests have been researched for many years prior to publishing and actually using them for diagnosing. They provide a norm group which is used for comparison to determine the level of the student. Furthermore, their best use is determining strengths and weaknesses of a student to use when making placement decisions. Whereas, criterion referenced tests can be teacher created or published evaluations, if they are published they are not usually researched to the level of norm-referenced tests. Also, these tests are used to determine how much of the content being taught the students are understanding.
Redefining School Leadership responsibilities There is a greater need to redefine the way leadership is looked at if we need to improve schools and student learning outcomes by (A) Providing higher degree of autonomy and support that help school leaders understand how they can improve student learning and school process through accountability and responsibility (B) Supporting, evaluating and developing teacher quality: School leaders must be able to adapt teaching programmes that address local needs and promote team work among teachers and help in teacher’s professional development (C) Goal setting, assessment and accountability: Leaders must be able to set strategic direction and optimise capacities to develop school plan and goals monitor progress and use data to help improve practices (D) Strategic resource management: The leader must be able to use resources wisely both human and finance for the benefit of the organisation (E) Collaboration with other schools: School leaders must be able to be involved in matters that are beyond their own school borders II. Distributed School
According to, Lue (2000), problem based learning is derived from the conviction that the learner is an active and creative with the will and ability to seek individual knowledge and solve development. iii. Demonstration: Methods: This technique may use by the students or the teacher. It must be very well planned, and the necessary equipment materials must be ready at the designated demonstration
For regular grading, students demonstrate their knowledge by taking written and oral tests, performing presentations, turning in homework and participating in class activities and discussions. Teachers evaluate in terms of letter or number grades and side notes, to describe how well a student has done. At the state level, students are evaluated by their performance on standardised tests geared toward specific ages and based on a set of
Introduction Assessment in education must, first and foremost, serve the purpose of supporting learning. Assessment is the process of gathering data. More specifically, assessment is the ways instructors gather data about their teaching and their students’ learning (Hanna & Dettmer, 2004). The nature of an item relies on upon the exertion we put in it for boost. Consequently, in each association there is a pattern of giving administration with enhanced quality to its clients.
Therefore, it is important to determine whether or not the current system brings the best outcomes that it deserves. OECD elaborated that there are common policy challenges concerning student assessment which include aligning educational standards and student assessment; balancing external assessments and summative assessments in the assessment of learning and integrating student formative assessment in the evaluation and assessment framework. By demonstrating the benefits that this policy changes could
Introduction: The essay explores about Assessment and its types , its uses in the field of education. How assessments works how it can be helpful for students and teachers. How the forms of assessments fit its purposes. Educational assessment is the process in which collecting of data from different sources occurs in order to improve students learning and also to improve the teaching skills of teachers. This gathered data is then analyzed and is used to understand the level of students knowledge whether the students have achieved the level that was intended to achieve.