CHAPTER III THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK This study focused on the Attachment theory in which it is stated how attachment is a deep and enduring emotional bond that connects one person to another across time and space (Ainsworth, 1973; Bowlby, 1969). Attachment theory is a theory that’s connected to psychology, studied first by John Bowlby. It explains the relevance of getting attached to something in an individual’s development. It is observed among children relying on their parents for stability, and that there is an existing need for them due to such reliance. The attachment theory is most commonly observed in the parent- child scenario, as it is in Bowlby’s study which regarded the existence of the attachment as a child needing some sort of person to give them a security and assurance.
Through factors such as cognitive development of the infant, attentive care and intimate interactions with a primary caregiver, the attachment relationship is created – shaping the infants- caregiver bond. By examining the interactions between an infant and their primary caregiver, we can identify secure, insecure and disorganized attachment (Ainsworth, 1978; Cassidy 1994); which can reveal a great deal about the relationship between the infant and attachment figure. Overall, the quality of attachment bonds formed in the early years can have long lasting effects on an infant’s emotional security and social competence; not only shaping their ability to form relationships, but laying the foundations for the social, emotional and mental development of the
Self-Help Tips - What Are Boundaries? Many people will hear the word boundaries and immediately think that it only applies to someone who works in or understands the world of therapy or counselling. In fact healthy boundaries are something that hopefully will be developed in most families with kids, and are essential for any children or growing adolescents to have in order to feel an inner sense of security that allows them to grow. It is unlikely that most families will talk about boundaries. It is much more likely that a parent or parents will realise the need to set boundaries for children in order to give them an external sense of permanence that creates a sense of safety for the child.
A large proportion of the research supports the importance of attachment in early childhood and the security formed can result in certain social and behaviour characteristics. As a child develops its independence the attachment behaviour become less prominate leading to a social mature relationship. Ainsworth (1989) suggest that it never disappears and that adolescences and young adult still rely on their parent in these roles. Bowlby (1979) it is a mistake to assume as some psychoanalysts do, that the presence of attachment behaviour in adult life is pathological, regressive or reflects ‘fixation’. To Bowlby this is a biological based behaviour and a considered choice.
So, it is very important for parents and caregivers to take care of the child with proper ways and techniques to develop physical development. Emotional development in early childhood We can define emotional development as a child’s ability to regulate and control emotions and to form secure relationships with his/her peers, parents, and caregivers. Toddlers tend to have rapid mood swings. Child begins to create strong emotional bonds with his/her love ones during this stage. Following are the main characteristics of emotional development in early childhood: • Children develop better understanding of emotions.
According to Kohlberg, moral development in adolescence is accompanied by cognitive maturation and depends principally on experience. There are two experiences that spur moral reasoning in young adults encountering conflicting values from home and being responsible for the welfare of others. The experience of the adolescents may lead to reevaluate their standards for what is right and
Early childhood is the stage where a child has a critical foundation for the entirety of their life considerng this stage affects their life physically, mentally, emotionally, cognitively and spiritually. This is also the time when they can be easily influenced and their brains are being developed and molded. The environment around them can be truly adopted by the child easily. It will definitely have a massive influence in their life. So a proper guidance by the parent is very important for them to know what is right and wrong and for the child to be disciplined the right
Introduction Attachment is the emotional bond between a child and parent. This bond can shape the way in which the child's emotional and social development can phase out throughout it’s lifetime. Both attachment and temperament have shown robust associations with children’s peer functioning (Berlin et al,, 2008.) Early attachment within the child's life has an impact on the developing brain, which can result in lasting effects at a neuronal level (Schore, 1994.) Of course the importance of attachment does not cease right after a child s early life, however the focus of my essay is to be concentrated on the different theories and studies associated with early life attachment.
The attachment theory specifies that an infants and young child requires consistent relationships with people to thrive and develop. Attachment is described as a essential need with a biological basis where infants or young children need to maintain a sense of security with a specific person. Developing a secure attachment between the infant and their parents or guardian is an important part of early childhood development, due to the many things that can interfere with the development of a healthy attachment. Without a secure attachment, an infant may develop problems that can continue throughout their lives and affect the relationships with others. Approach behavior may be defined as locomotion in which a usual outcome of the distance between one person and one other specific person is observed to distinguish the distance between each individual and the attachment to one another.
Introduction – the central importance of early attachment relationships in development Development is shaped to a very significant degree by the relationships we have with our primary attachment figures. These earliest relationships are crucial as they represent our first emotional and social interactions, are the first means by which we learn about ourselves and the world, and lay the foundations for adjusted development, emotional wellbeing and later successful interpersonal relationships (ref). Bowlby, the founding father of attachment theory, describes how in ideal circumstances our attachment relationship with our primary caregiver– in the majority of cases our mother- is organized in such a way that we come to view our caregiver and later, other people, as reliable, loving and dependable; the world as a safe place to be explored with confidence, and ourselves as worthy and deserving of love (ref). We will return later to this theory and specifically to the development of internal working models which shape our perceptions of ourselves and others, but for now it is sufficient to acknowledge that the establishment of a secure attachment relationship with a primary caregiver sets up the developing child for optimal psychological wellbeing and adjustment (ref). Attachment style was later described in more detail by Ainsworth and colleagues (ref) and was experimentally operationalised as the Strange Situation Experiment (ref) which remains the gold standard for assessing