This is what attribution theory is concerned about. Attribution is a process by which individual explain and predict the cause of other people’s actions and who or what was responsible for that behavior or outcome. Attributing behavior can be done in few processes. First, an individual must observe either his own behavior or of that of another individual. Second, an individual or someone must determine if the behavior or action being observed id intentional.
Conversely, the attribution theory deduces the cause of behavior from behavioral consequences. Hence, the attribution is the causal explanation and inference that the observers make to predict and evaluate human behavior. In summary, attribution is seeking causes of results. That is to say, people analyze their own behavior or others by utilizing their perceptions, thoughts, judgments and so on, and then they find out and explain the reasons for those behaviors. Therefore, attribution is an important component of human cognitive process, as well as an important influence on the formation of self-concepts.
The attribution theory is a method that can be used to assess how people perceive the behaviour of himself and other people. The attribution theory refers to how people generate causal explanations. In the book "The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations” Heider stated that all behaviour is considered to be determined by internal or external factors. In external attribution the causality is assigned to a factor, an agent or an external force. External factors go out of control.
Memes often originate within same culture and society and are the social marker recognized by the similar member of same culture. The connection of the memes and its popularity depends on the individual relation with the group. Attribution Theory: Attribution theory is the study of social Psychology, and used to study the causes of Individual behaviors and event or external factors to explain a given situation. Every individual attribution is driven by emotional and motivational impulses. So it can be classifies as: • Internal attributions: driven by motives and emotional attitudes of an individual.
Introduction The aim of this paper is to discuss the essence of the attribution and resource-based theories in the context of organizations. The choice for these theories is due to their focus on: the importance of the development of employees as key for competitive advantage; and the importance of alignment between employers and employees in the messages conveyed by HR practices for firm performance. We support the concepts and its implications in the HRM field by providing empirical evidence from the articles discussed throughout this course. We then finalize comparing and discussing the main criticisms of the explanatory power of both theories. Attribution theory Kelley’s attribution theory posits that individuals tend to make causal inferences
Dispositional Attribution: This is an individual behaviour that is not caused by other factors rather than the adequacy or inadequacy of an individual. The explanation of this behaviour is internal and dependent on individual characteristics. Dispositional attribution gives a more accurate assessment of individual behaviour because it relies on the individual characteristics independent of the external factors though people have the habit to rationalize whatever decision they have taken. 1.6. Situational Attribution: Situational Attribution is the way individual behaviour is explained with external characteristics that is not due to the personal attributes of individuals.
Additionally, specific patterns and biases an individual uses when forming impressions based on a limited amount of initial information about an unfamiliar person. While on the other hand, there are parts of the impression formation process that are context dependent, individuals also tend to exhibit certain tendencies in forming impressions variety of situations. There is not one single implicit personality theory used, but different approaches the task of impression formation in his or her own unique way. Moreover, there are some components of implicit personality theories that are consistent across individuals, or within groups of similar individuals. These components are of particular interest to social psychologists because they have the potential to give insight into what impression one person will form of another (Millon, 2003).
Bandura (1986) states that learning can occur by watching others and then modeling what they do or say which is known as observational learning. Bandura (1986) posits that virtually all learning phenomena can occur by observing other people 's behavior and consequence of it. Further he states that there are four key aspects which are attention, retention, reproduction, and motivation in Social Cognitive Theory.
However and in association with my context, the focus will be paid on two main factors in this theory ; (1) Expectancy of success: According to psychological studies, the students are influenced by their past experiences (attribution theory) beliefs, perceptions of peoples’ attitude and expectations from them. All these expectations are linked to their previous achievement outcomes. Also, the learners’ perceptions and judgment of handling certain tasks and their efficiency levels dealing with difficult tasks (self- efficacy theory). In addition to maintaining self-esteem (self- worth theory) acted as an important factor in my students’ engagement in classroom practices (Dorynei 1998, Eccles and Wigfield, 2002, Atkinson’s 1964, Eccles 2005).
The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) developed by Petty and Cacioppo (1986) stresses the importance of cognition in mediating variables involved in the persuasion process. Elaboration refers to the degree to which an individual process the information that they are faced with. In this micro theory of communication, the model postulates that information processed through the two distinct routes, mainly the central or peripheral route, will ‘form the poles of a continuum to attitude change’ (McNeill, 1989). This essay seeks to compare the ELM and another micro theory, called the Cognitive Dissonance Theory, in explaining communication behavior. Thereafter, a review of the ELM would be done in the final section of the paper.