While more affluent districts benefit from private funding from wealthy parents, schools such as those in the South Bronx often have decaying facilities and class sizes over thirty (Kozol 3,8). In The Outliers, Gladwell notes the tendency of these structural inequalities to persist, arguing that success is the result of “accumulative advantage” rather than an individual’s talent or hard work alone (30). Therefore, a person’s ability to get an education and obtain a well-paying job can be either helped or hindered by institutional inequalities. The Salvation Army’s programs seek to alleviate some of the devastating effects structural disadvantages have on poor members of local communities. According to the organization’s
Dabalen (2000) shows that in Kenya, women with the least skills saw their position worsen relative to men with similar skills, even as women with the most skills were gaining ground on comparable men. Lack of assets not only leads to lower participation by women but also constrains girls’ access to education. Alderman and King (1998) indicate that the absence of cash earnings in many societies limits the ability of women to realize and remit market returns from their education
When compared to other economic systems such as communism, capitalism does promote the ideas of freedom and equality for all individuals under the system. However, these ideas do not come to light because certain individuals tend to perform better under the capitalist system due to underlying factors of wealth, power, and status. As a result the system of capitalism can be seen as advancing social inequality because individuals who generally belong to a lower socioeconomic status find it much harder to make money than their wealthier counterparts. This is because the capitalist system maximizes profits while minimizing costs, and it generally allows for the wealth to be accumulated at the top resulting in a static social structure with the wealthy at top and the poor at the bottom. The reason the capitalist social and economic systems promote inequality is because they
They positively or negatively affect the individual, in other words, family support might be weak for any number of reasons effecting attachment and commitment resulting in the search for others like themselves for attachment. This theory is very relevant seeing that it doesn’t reside in just one class of society. However, it does seem to be more prevalent in the poorer areas due to the lack of financial opportunities, broken families and the encouragement of education. In my own perception, the theory could go more into detail in the belief phase. I feel if the self-control part of the general theory of crime could be incorporated into the belief component of the social bond theory, it would further elaborate on the ability of an individual to commit crime believing it to be wrong to do so.
According to geographical variables, the segmentation can be conducted nationally, regionally or locally (Tynan & Drayton, 1987). As a result of the limited financial resources and distribution channels to cover larger areas, many smaller companies usually end up with local segments, in contrast larger ones (mostly multinational companies) take advantages of the segmentation variable. Narrowly speaking, geographic segmentation can be just tailored to regional or country levels, which allows us to assess the profitability in the countries based on their economic performances such as gross national product per capita or average income. Another good point of the variable is that it takes the cultural difference into consideration. Despite the benefits, the segmentation variable is quite limited since it assumes that customers in the
Therefore, the well-being of a population—and its deprivation—are contingent on both monetary and non-monetary variables. High income levels may enhance the monetary and non-monetary elements of a person or household, however, the markets for a number of non-monetary elements are non-existent, hence implying that higher income may not necessarily result in improved well-being. Consequently, it can be inferred that it would be inadequate to attribute income as the sole indicator of well-being and/or poverty. Rather, it should be supplemented with other variables and indicative components, such as literacy, life expectancy and access to public amenities; to mention but a
In the same vein, while living alone may cost a set amount, addition of another adult leads to a situation of pooled consumption in which both individuals may share in the use of certain public goods(for example, shelter, food, heating). In this case, adding a person to the household also does not add up to the sum of the two parts. This phenomenon is referred to as economies of scale. Although the OECD equivalence scale is commonly used in the literature, it is important to note that a variety of equivalent scales are available and each may systematically affect the absolute or relative levels of poverty apparent in a given population.23 Although current poverty lines are invaluable in assessing poverty and inequality between households, they are ineffective in capturing disparities within households. As poverty statistics are generally collected through household living standard surveys, the relative needs and consumption patterns of individual members are not adequately taken into account.
The more ‘developed’ a country is, the more money it is capable of making. So in talking about poor countries, we are talking about Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDCs – This is a better term than ‘the developing world’, as some poor countries may not actually be developing, but standing still or even shrinking.) In asking ourselves why some countries are poor, what we need to work out is why they are not developing. And there are several reasons, with geographical, political, and cultural factors all coming in to play. Overpopulation Overpopulation is defined as the situation of having large numbers of people with too few resources and too little space.
Wealthier villagers participated in such a program more than the poor. Weiss, Montgomery, and Kurmanalieva described that microfinance services are not reaching to the core poor that deserves the financial help the most. According to them, core poor people are considered more risky and unattractive clients for offering microfinance. There is a need to improve the design and outreach of microfinance services in order to target only poor instead of whole community. Similarly, Weiss and Montgomery collected data through surveys from Latin America and Asia and found that the access to the microfinance services for the primary poor in both regions is very
In the literature, the impact of inflation expectation has mixed results on consumption pattern of countries. Some researchers showed its positive effect on consumer spending and some studies showed the negative results of this on consumer spending Inﬂation expectations are important because agents’ behavior tends to be consistent with their beliefs (Zafar et al., 2011). Although actual expectations are unobservable but for the most part the academic community has agreed on using reported survey expectations as good proxy for expectation data (Roberts, 1995). A large part of literature concerned with inﬂation expectations questions the rationality of these expectations - do individuals think rationally when forming their expectations of inﬂation