Climatology is the scientific study of spatio- temporal characteristics and variation of climatic elements like rainfall, temperature, evapotranspiration, humidity, pressure, winds and air masses. The word Climatology is derived from two Greek words ‘klima’ and ‘logia’. The klima means place or zone and logia means the study of climate. The climate is the average study of weather. The standard average periods for climatic analysis are 30 years defined by the World Meteorological organization (WMO).
5.1 Introduction to Climate and Weather According to Oxford Dictionaries, climate means the weather conditions mainly in a region overally or over a sustained period of time. Climate takes hundreds, thousands, or even millions of years to change. In some cases, the climate of a place is portrayed with charts this way.
The Earth’s climate is an extensive and complex thing. Science has studied it a great deal, but there is still much that is unknown. One thing that is known however is that humans can directly and indirectly affect the climate. One way they do this is by contributing to climate change. Climate change is very real and will have terrible effects if left unchecked.
Weather is described as short term climatic conditions of a specific location such as changes in daily temperature, changes in humidity levels during period of 24 hours etc. It describe the atmospheric conditions such as to which degree it will be hot or cold, weather will be clear or cloudy, wet or dry etc. Air pressure and speed, fog, temperature, humidity level, wind and dust storms and precipitation are important components of weather. All these components of weather occurred in troposphere which is lower part of earth’s atmosphere. Latitude and longitude are two factors that play a great role towards shaping the weather and climatic conditions of a specific place/location.
 Many species of the rainforest are still unidentified, hence more new medicines and foods are yet to be discovered. Thus, providing a very profited industry for the man-kind. Climate Rainforests regulate global and regional climate-systems. Water is release into the atmosphere, forming clouds, which returns to the ground in the form of rain. When the forest is remove, the water cycle is disrupted, temperatures increase, droughts become more common.
During the 20th century, various disciplines have attempted to link environment and society, consolidating into half a dozen subdisciplines. These include Robert Park's human ecology, (1936), Julian Steward's cultural ecology (1955), the ecological anthropology of Rappaport (1968), Bateson (1972), Netting (1974)
Fig 2: Branches of Geography. It studies the patterns and interactions between human activities and physical environment analyze the spatial pattern and relationships of environmental components of the globe in a regional context and studies the causes of regional patterns of such relationships. It takes into view both the spatial and temporal aspects of environmental components and their causes. The main concern of physical geography is biosphere which the layer of the life around the globe which supports the life of all biota (plants and animals) on the earth surface. The quality of biosphere is determined by the immediate physical environment which consequently is dependent on interactions between the endogentic
Our magnificent star, the Sun is the source of the life on our planet and all the events and changes on the Sun will affect the Earth. Here comes the importance of space weather studies, which concerns the study of the Sun and all its phenomena. The study of space climate includes both long-term average behavior and variations in the long-term averages, while space weather is concerning the short-term variation in the solar activity. One of the most important phenomena in the solar activity is the solar flares. The solar flare is one of the most stunning phenomena, involving the production of broadband electromagnetic radiation from the radio band down to X-ray and Gamma-ray wavelengths, and the acceleration of charged particles to very high
The climate at a specific location is defined as the 'average' weather conditions considered over a period of years (Skinner & Porter 1987, Michiels et al., 1992) which a changing process that can be evident by the changing pattern of the weather phenomena like temperature, precipitation, humidity etc. Climate change is a major concern all over the world in the recent past and would be in future as its extreme consequences are against of human civilization. There is general agreement that changes in the frequency or intensity of extreme weather and climate events would have profound impacts on both human society and the natural environment (Easterlinget al., 2000). It has been seen that the main factors that affect climate are precipitation