Speaking: 1.1. The Definition of speaking: Speaking is an indispensable skill that language learners should master with the other language skills. It is defined as a convoluted process of sending and receiving messages through the use of verbal expressions, but it also includes non verbal symbols such as gestures and facial expressions. Hedge (2000) defines speaking as “a skill by which they [people] are judged while first impressions are being formed. "(p.261).That is to say speaking is an essential skill which deserves more attention in both first and second language because it reflects people’s thoughts and personalities.
Speaking is a process of how speaker constructs meaning which includes creating and receiving information on an interactive way (Brown, 1994). The meaning and the form are delivered to the hearer depending on the context which also includes the participants, physical environment, and purposes for the speaking. Speaking is used to show someone 's feelings, thoughts, and even ideas to other people (Herman, 2016). Speaking is also one of the most important skills which should be supported by some components such as grammar competence, vocabulary mastery, and good pronunciation (Ur, 1996). In speaking, one of the components that should be mastered is pronunciation.
Explain the principles of effective communication Introduction In this assignment I am going to explain the principles of effective communication. Communicating effectively relies on developing skills in three main areas: General communication skills, interpersonal communication skills and written communication skills. Also, effective communication helps us better understand a person or condition as well as it allows us to resolve differences, build trust and respect. Similarly effective communication is important in order to be heard and change your environment according to your own thoughts. General communication skills Culture differences Effective communication with people of different cultures is very challenging.
Today it is clear that successful and effective contacts with representatives of other cultures is not possible without practical skills in intercultural communication. In this case, it should be noted the role of language in overcoming barriers in communication between representatives of different cultures. Language, perhaps the most important component of culture because much of the culture is normally transmitted orally. It is impossible to understand the subtle nuances and deep meaning of another culture without knowing its language well. Language in the communication process not only performs the function of encoding the transmitted information, but also plays a special role in the process of obtaining new knowledge about the world, processing, storage and transmission of this knowledge.
But do these devices actually act as a checks to the information gained by our instinctive judgements? This is what I shall explore in this essay. To communicate our judgements and observations, must use language as a medium. Language can come in many forms - verbal and nonverbal, represented in words, objects, or images, and continue subtleties such as tone, gesture, and symbolism. What is essential, however, is that both the sender and receiver are able to understand the words, the non-verbal cues, and references made.
Therefore he is able to choose the most propet methods for translation. Generally, Reiss identified three text types: content-focused text, form-focused text, and appeal-focused text, which have different dominant functions. The language in a content-focused text is rather informative, while in a form-focused text what need to be emphasized is the esthetic and expressive effects. Appealing-focused texts intend to persuade the readers. Moreover, Reiss also provides a critical lens for assessing translation quality, through examining the shifts of the linguistic semantic, lexical, grammatical and stylistic elements in the target text.
Type design, is making letterforms that people use to present their ideas. Its task is to create the forms and shapes that connect the content of the spoken and written language with durable physical existence. It bridges the gap between form and content. The ability to communicate has been continuing to evolve from oral communication and handwritten manuscripts to printed and furthermore to digital. This process of creating alphabet forms is an art requiring sensitivity to techniques, social needs and cultural functions in regard to aesthetics.
What is divergence? Divergence in translation arises when the sentences in source language are realized in a different manner in the target language. It is necessary to understand how different linguistic and extra linguistic constraints play decisive roles in translation resulting in divergences and other issues. Proper identification and understanding these problems are important in both manual and machine translation. Moreover, resolution of such problems is a pre-requisite for generating good translation in target language.
However, according to Skiba (1997), code switching happened in different forms of sentences or phrases by combining two languages. From the above statements, the writer concludes that code switching is the phenomena when two languages are being combined in the same or different sentence and used in oral or written communication. On the other hand, Hoffman (1991) stated that bilinguals usually use code switching for social interaction. It shows that if someone has bilingual competence, code switching can occurs. Furthermore, because of the language diversity, when someone wants to explain or mention one thing, he or she may use a particular term that is easy to understand by other people like combining two languages in oral or written conversations.
While discussing the importance of grammar, he says: Grammar is the structural foundation of our ability to express ourselves. The more we are aware of how it works, the more we can monitor the meaning and effectiveness of the way we and others use language. It can help foster precision, detect ambiguity, and exploit the richness of