Speaking: 1.1. The Definition of speaking: Speaking is an indispensable skill that language learners should master with the other language skills. It is defined as a convoluted process of sending and receiving messages through the use of verbal expressions, but it also includes non verbal symbols such as gestures and facial expressions. Hedge (2000) defines speaking as “a skill by which they [people] are judged while first impressions are being formed. "(p.261).That is to say speaking is an essential skill which deserves more attention in both first and second language because it reflects people’s thoughts and personalities.
For example, knowledge of stems helps students predict or guess what a word means, explain why a word is spelt the way it is, and remember the word by knowing how its current meaning evolved from its metaphorical origins (Kelly, 1991). 126.96.36.199 Lexical Chunks Lexis, that is, different kinds of multi-word chunks, is basic to communication. Chunks include collocations, fixed and semi-fixed expressions and idioms, which according to Lewis (1997) occupy a crucial role in facilitating language production and are the key to fluency. Therefore it is beneficial for language learners to gain exposure to lexical chunks in order to begin the process of internalization. According to Schmitt (2000), the mind stores and processes lexical chunk as individual wholes.
Consequently, this use of language received a central place in language instruction. Morley (1991) and Bowen (1972) suggested the teaching of pronunciation will be gained better result if pronunciation forms a necessary part of oral communication than it is separated to teach. And pronunciation purposed a new perspective and said that students do not need achieve native-like or perfect pronunciation, intelligible pronunciation is sufficient and essential component of oral communication Current perspectives Based on the changes occurred during different part of history of pronunciation teaching and new perspectives of its teaching, there are clear principles to teach pronunciation, which are followed in current instruction 1. Pronunciation should be approached both segmental and suprasegmental features. Suprasegmental features are more significant than segmental features.
Brown and Perry (1991) identified three main types of mnemonic strategies: (1) keyword, (2) semantic, and (3) keyword-semantic. According to Ellis (1997), the core of a keyword method is to create a form and semantic connection between the target word and its translation. A semantic strategy attempts to evoke an association between the target word and the learners’ existing semantic systems. A keyword-semantic strategy involves a combination of the aforementioned strategies. Research has shown that keyword mnemonics are an effective device in accelerating learning speed and in boosting immediate recall of second-language vocabulary.
Introduction Audio-lingual (ALM) method has been implemented in the field of teaching second and foreign language. Hence, this essay is going to shed light on the main principles of the ALM. Furthermore, it discusses the current role of the ALM in language teaching highlighting its advantages and disadvantages as well as presenting my personal reflection on the method. The main principles of the Audio-lingual method (ALM) Basically, the ALM focuses on developing the aural-oral proficiency of learners through intensive drills and memorization of grammatical patterns and structure using dialogues (Larsen-Freeman, 2000). Consequently, the accurate pronunciation, stress, rhythm, and intonation are essential in order to ensure learners proficiency
This is supported by Wentzel and Looney (2007) who views that having language disorders may stray the real essence of a message. For instance, a teacher may have problems in phonating or pronouncing words appropriately. This is likely to affect the learning process of subjects such as languages since learners have a tendency of capturing more information through imitating. Instead of focusing on the ideal concept being learnt, the learners are strayed by poor phonation and articulation of words by the teacher. In addition to that, the teacher may speak or read too fast for the level of the learner`s understanding.
For instance, learners cannot understand a reading passage if they do not have an adequate vocabulary and do not have the skills to guess meaning from context. In summary, vocabulary knowledge is an essential component of learning a second language for several reasons. Both native speakers and learners recognize the importance of getting the words right because lexical errors are numerous and disruptive. Thus, it is important for learners to have good lexical skills in order to produce sentences and to understand them correctly (Gass & Selinker, 2001). One way to decrease the problem is to help students in becoming independent learners during the process of second language vocabulary learning (Maleki, 2010).
In fact, the successful language learning enhances the learners to identify themselves with the native speakers of that language and acquire or adopt various aspects of behaviors which characterize the members of the target language community. 2.2) Cognitive Aspect of Attitude This aspect of attitude involves the beliefs of the language learners about the knowledge that they receive and their understanding in the process of language learning. The cognitive attitude can be classified into four steps of connecting the previous knowledge and the new one, creating new knowledge, checking new knowledge, and applying the new knowledge in many
Basically, it is an explanation of how psychological and emotional factors influence language learning. It is particularly related to teachers’ attitude as it provides constructive reasons why some learners are more successful in learning than others. A Krashen (1983) state that for learning to take place learner’s affective filter needs to be low. If it is high, the learner is afraid of being engaged in language, consequently blocking acquiring process and understanding what is being taught. In this sense, songs are considered as one of the preferable ways of keeping affective filter low, promoting stress-free learning