Paul Van Tieghem (in 1946) differentiated between general literature and comparative literature. He called studying movements and fashions of literature transcending national lines as general literature, while comparative literature meant studying inter-relationship between two or more literatures. Henry Remak’s conception of comparative literature, in 1971, was that of studying literature beyond the confines of one particular country, plus looking at the relationships between literature and other areas of knowledge and belief, like other arts (painting, music, architecture and so on), the sciences, other spheres of human expression. The most recent definition of comparative literature, which is held in high regards, would be the one by Steven Tötösy de Zepetnek in 1999. He stresses on at least two ways of studying literature.
Abstract Pursuit of comparative literature enhances one to appreciate literature existing in multiple stages of writing like plot, characters, timing, theme, style, narration etc.. at academic front comparative literature upholds the working knowledge of literature in translations and criticism, besides it boost one to better understand global customs and culture (i.e. existing and developing). Litterature Comparée, the French term for 'Comparative Literature, ' emerged in France in the beginning of the nineteenth century and has been an ambiguous one till Arnold’s touchstone method introduced, very initially touchstone method guided much research and literature aspirants to focus on developments and variations on penning ideas. The outcome of many more literary works lead to translations that helped to good learning’s and exchanging work. For schooling aspirants Bhagavata, Padmini, Jasmine, Saleem Sinai, characters brought by translation helped to shape their character and gave a chance to prejudice.
Ning (2009, cited in Liu 2012: 4) states that this cultural turn of translation studies forces its subject field to change from a strict interlingual translation to a more cross-cultural translation that becomes “liberated from its previous logocentric myopia.” (2009, cited in Liu 2012: 4) Yan and Huang (2014: 491) take this argument a step further by pointing out that translation governed by culture transforms into something independent discharging its previous sole function; that of copying the source text. That way “emphasis is placed on the material reality of translated texts, as separate from originals.” (Simon, 1996: 130) Thus, Cultural Studies causes a destabilisation of previously well-firmed translation theory concepts and techniques resulting in “mak[ing] their study object[s] [come] closer to each other, leading to their final integration.”(Liu, 2010: 94) Indeed, Bassnett and Lefevere had already stated that “[...] the parallels between these two important interdisciplinary fields and the overlap between them are so significant that they can no longer be ignored.” (1998:
At this point, though, it is important to distinguish between the standpoints of the two authors, since they seem to put a different meaning into their understanding of cultural and religious liberty: whereas Emerson views literature as a means of “complete intellectual emancipation” (236), Thoreau suggests at some point that classics are the source of enlightenment. In other words, with the help of books Thoreau hopes “to scale heaven at last” (104) and to practise religion without the help of churches. Yet, Emerson emphasizes the importance of religious awareness for distinguishing between cultures: for example, he claims that while Western society is characterised by a high level of comfort and secular stability, Oriental society is stabilised and civilised only with the help of poetry and religion (226). However different Emerson’s and Thoreau’s final objectives seem to be, both of them foreground the significance of reading for gaining indispensable cultural knowledge in general and religious awareness in particular, which, according to them, necessarily leads to religious open-mindedness and
In this research, I will try to prove that John Dryden deconstructs the imperial image that Shakespeare has drawn in his plays. Also, it is an evidence that the Restoration age (drama) is not an extension of the Renaissance drama, but a deconstruct of that image, especially when it comes to Orient characters. In order to dig deeply in understanding the significant of Restoration drama as an independent and autonomous era that deconstructs the imperial image that has been drawn by the Renaissance era, there should be a wide-range of historical and political knowledge of that period, and should be a counsel of many critical articles and many books which referred to that
“Literature adds to reality, it does not simply describe it. It enriches the necessary competencies that daily life requires and provides; and in this respect, it irrigates the deserts that our lives have already become.” said Clive Staples Lewis, a British novelist.This quote supports classical literature by stating that it contributes to the transformation of society opposed to only describing reality. A classical story such as Macbeth by William Shakespeare displays the relevance of reading classical literature and its benefits. Classical literature improves vital critical thinking skills, have relevant themes, and are an origin of many modern cultural references. Macbeth allows for students to come out of their comfort zone and read books which require
The definitions, therefore, usually include additional adjectives such as aesthetic or artistic to distinguish literary works from texts such as newspapers, scientific textbooks, magazines, legal documents, brochures, and so on. Hamlyn (1998) stated that literature in the word originally meant all written language. More formally, literature is defined, according to one dictionary, as writing in which expression and form, in connection with ideas of permanent and universal interest, are characteristic or essential features, as poetry, romance, history, biography, essay etc. Not all good books are literature, but all literature is good, interesting, significant and well written. Based on those definitions above the researcher gives understanding that the literature is more than writing.
More over, one is able to know, for example why something of the past has become successful or not. For instance, one can regard new racism fashions toward refugee as a current example with caution. The past has shown that political oppression and racism has lead to unhuman behaviour. Nevertheless, one can not learn a language without the cultural background in context. More over, studying the English Teaching History consists also of individual findings.
Translation has become an indispensible tool for the teachers of comparative literature as it is the gateway to enter the arena of the texts of the ‘other’. However, with this shift of the discipline of translation studies from a purely linguistics-oriented approach to a more culture-oriented approach, the scholars have increasingly begun to trace the exercise of ideology in translation that had been hitherto a largely neglected area in linguistics-oriented approaches. The teachers and researchers of comparative literature should use the tool of translation with sensitivity to the ideology it embodies. Since one of major achievements of comparative studies has been enlarging the canvass of cross-cultural communication and understanding, ideology cannot but be a major area of evaluation. Though ideology permeates almost all institutions of society, one of the pertinent areas where the translator should be sensitive to the ideological impact is gender.
These parameters seek to make ideas closer to the other culture and to be understood easily by all readers or listeners. Translation plays an important role in the creation of literary texts and it is central to one understanding of them. Thus this research focuses on literary translation that, language has more than a communicative, or social and connective purpose. Gouadec(2007) defines the meaning of translation in particular literary translation through his perspective " Literary Translation is the translation of any kind of fictional work, including prose narratives, drama and poetry"(p.46).The translator believes that literary translation often requires certain talents such as sensitivity, creativeness and aesthetic feeling. Translators are language professionals so any translator has a role no less important than anyone who concerns with language and