Third, program evaluation must be able to consider political and environmental context. It is in this particular characteristic that the authors aver the importance of stakeholders: the evaluator, the one to commission the evaluation; and other organizations or individuals that have significant stakes in the program. On the other hand, the results that evaluations aim for should be timely and meaningful especially to decision makers as this will determine the fate of the program. (Rossi et al.,:2004) Finally, program evaluation seeks to improve social conditions by informing social action. Findings from assessments should always serve as a basis for decisions for actions or non-actions towards the program.
The approach was viewing the social work practice in a different light, emphasising the importance of the adaptive balance organism and the environment. If there is misfit between the both system and environment, the social treatment should be aimed at corrective action for this condition. This insight gave the platform for the development of the ecological perspective which is being used currently in the field of social work. The systems theory was developed following the intellectual leaps of Ludwig von Bertalanffy (1933; Gray and Rizzo, 1973) in the 1930 's, which influenced the thoughts and activity which came together to create a research on the operations of the World War II. This was successful and though process advanced significantly as this gave a renewed energy on the battlefield.
Another prominent debate has been the Second Great Debate in International Relations where again another dichotomous position was fixated, namely the traditionalism versus behaviouralism. The traditionalists were seen as calling for historical methods while the behaviouralist voiced for a scientific methodology (Bull 1966; Kaplan 1966). This debate also relied on numerous other dichotomies such as objective/subjective, fact/value, understanding/explanation, qualitative/quantitative and others. Similarly the Third Great Debate, namely positivism vs post-positivism, where the question of ontology and epistemology was addressed (Horkheimer 1972, Lapid 1989, Halfpenny 2001). This debate has also relied on some or the other form of dichotomy, for instance problem solving theory/critical theory, discovered/socially constructed knowledge, objective/subjective and others.
In an attempt to understand how science evolves, Thomas Kuhn proposed the idea that in a particular scientific discipline and in a specific time period there exist a leading paradigm. This was in response to the commonly held belief that science evolves in a cumulative manner. In addition, George Ritzer uses Khun’s theory as background in order to make the social world easier to understand. He believed that Sociology is a multiple paradigm science, which embodied three major paradigms. Namely, the social facts, the social definition and the social behaviour paradigms, but he found that these paradigms were too one sided in their approach.
CULTURAL INTELLIGENCE Cultural Intelligence Cultural intelligence is defined as the ability to adjust to new and different cultural settings. It is also known as the capability to cooperate effectively with other people from a dissimilar cultural background and understanding. Cultural Intelligence, cultural quotient or CQ, is a term used in business, education, government and academic research. Cultural intelligence can be understood as the capability to relate and work effectively across cultures. HISTORY OF CULTURAL INTELLIGENCE Originally, the term cultural intelligence and the abbreviation "CQ" was developed by the research done by Soon Ang and Linn Van Dyne as a researched-based way of measuring and predicting intercultural performance.
Whereas, Weber owed his approach much to the Neo-Kantian Philosophy. Therefore, When Durkheim talked about (Social Facts- indicated that there were forces beyond individual control that affected their behaviour in any society.) society’s objective and measurable emphasises on individual. Weber was more interested in explaining the subjective interpretation and meaning that individual put on their behaviour to understand the society (Symbolic Interactionism). Both called for using the “scientific methods” to the study of society, while placing the stress over objectivity, however, their interpretation and ideology behind of “Objectivity” were profoundly different.
The reason why this is so crucial is because having public support and interest in hand and then using that to convey your proposed projects, is the best way to firstly establish oneself as a good representative of state, and be free to exercise that power to an extent. Since the PM gets his power from the conventions of the responsible government, it is subject to its interpretation. For instance, to interpret them, the policy precedents built up over time based on the various political practices, work of scholars, and lastly the court rulings in applying precedents must be studied carefully. Although the Governor General has a lot of power individually, while at the same time assisting the PM, he/she follows the advice of the PM, in terms of when
III. FALSIFIABILITY ANALYSIS IN KEYNES’ THEORY OF CONSUMPTION By using Popper’s theory of falsification, this essay will examine whether Keynes’ Theory of Consumption is falsifiable, thus can be furthered check whether the theory can be classified as science or pseudoscience. Using the first characteristics of Popper’s falsifiability theory, falsifiability is an adequate criterion of demarcation, it can be proven that this statement is falsifiable under several specific conditions. In Miller (1996), Milton Friedman believed that there are some weaknesses in Keynes’ Theory of Consumption. He argued that it is impossible for the individuals to continually spend their income
This chapter explains the methodology of the theory and covers identifying a suitable research question; clarifies the causes of believing in the idea that qualitative research methods are more suitable to neoclassical realist projects than quantitative methods. The international system is considered by neoclassical realists as an independent variable. Although the idea of the international system is similar to that of structural realism but, the nature of the strategic environment is different. Referring to neoclassical realism, the strategic environment has two major types: restrictive and permissive. The difference between these two belongs to the ‘imminence and magnitude of threats and opportunities that states face’ (p. 52).
When communities and governments see the value and legitimacy of the social work profession, an increase in resources will be allocated to these services. Social work theories and ethical codes are concepts which are interrelated with societal values and norms and adapt based on increased understanding of certain problems. Both theories and ethical codes serve cognitive functions, to support social workers understanding of complex issues as well as social functions, which focus on the legitimacy of social work as a profession (Healy, 2014; Banks, 2003).