The final stage is for the roots to absorb all the cations that have been released from the bonding of the hydrogen ions and the negatively charged soil2 . These are the stages required for the plants to get nutrients from the soil by the cation exchange. The next cycle that can be very valuable in plants being able to get nutrients within their soil is the nitrogen cycle. The nitrogen cycle is when nitrogen from the atmosphere or from decomposed organic material can be converted into nutrients by nitrogen-fixing bacteria1 . This process can be very successful for both the plants and the bacteria because they both end up giving each other something in return.
Then it becomes part of the plants tissue. Rhizodegration is also a type of phytoremediation that helps organic polluted sites. Rhizodregration is when microbes in the soil breakdown the contaminates. These microbes eat harmful chemicals in the soil. They do this by bioremediation.
For example, it helps in the management of hypertension and diabetes. The high dietary contents of this vegetable can help to slow down the digestion and conversion of starch to simple sugars. (The Nation Newspaper, 2016) 2.2 The effect of Soil pH on plants. Soil pH is one of the most routinely measured soil parameters and is used as the benchmark for the interpretation of soil chemical process. Soil pH governs the availability of many elements that are essential for, or toxic to, plant growth.
The process, Rhizoremediation also involves microbial degraders associated with aquatic plants as in the atrazine degradation by hornwort. This type of rhizosphere phytoremediation can be used as an economical approach to remove organic pollutants from the soil. The rhizosphere serves as niche for microorganisms in soil to live which is continuously intensifying as roots grow and penetrate new soil zones. The rhizosphere may serve as energy source for microorganisms involved in degradation, or support the process of pollutant degradation. Another advantage of phytostimulation is the development of new microorganisms, which may be inoculated on plant seed to initiate specific organisms to the growing rhizosphere.
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Situational Analysis Soil productivity is an important concern for farmers. Green manuring, crop rotation and mix farming are oftenly used to improve the soil fertility at the same time the nutrients used in plant growth are conserved and returned to the soil to enhance its fertility (Alberta Agriculture and Forestry, 1993). Green manuring is the plowing under or soil incorporation of any green manure crops while they are green or soon after they flower. Green manures are grown for their leafy materials needed for soil conservation (Boller et al., 2004). Plants are commonly used for green manuring have Rhizobia bacteria for nitrogen fixation similarly crop rotation is alternating legumes and non-legumes plants Most plants
Biosolids has many important uses such as: 1. biosolids are applied to cropland to improve the quality and the productivity as it contains nutrients and organic matters 2. used in landscaping as soil amendments 3. used as final landfill cover Sludge it is the designing of solids comes out from the wastewater treatment. It is a biological treatment process which absorb some solids and convert it to microbial biomass
Image of a root barrier (Weiler & Barth, 2009) (III) Drainage and retention Layer – A drainage course allows moisture to move laterally through the green roof system. It prevents oversaturation, ensures root ventilation and provides additional space for the roots to grow (figure 2.13). It is a porous, continuous layer over the entire roof surface just above the concrete slab (Snodgrass & Mclntyre, 2010). As moisture is essential for successful plant propagation, a moisture retention layer retains or stores moisture for plant growth. It is an absorptive mat and which is typically located above the drainage layer or above the aeration layer (NCRA,
Soil microorganisms are effective in releasing P from organic and inorganic pools of total soil P through mineralization and solubilization. The major mechanism of phosphate solubilization is the production of organic acids. The major mechanism of phosphate solubilization is the production of organic acids. Among the organic acids produced, gluconic, formic acid, 2-ketogluconic, citric, oxalic, lactic, isovaleric, succinic, glycolic and acetic acids produced from P- solubilizing bacteria. Production of organic acids results in the lowering of pH in the surroundings and many reports suggests a positive correlation between lowering of pH and mineral phosphate solubilization.
The irrigation with this water affects the crop and there are some possible solutions of this problem associated with industrial effluent. • Diluted textile effluent may be used for crops without affecting soil quality. • Application of ventury setup in drip or spray irrigation where zeolite/ kaolin filters can be added to reduce the heavy metal availability to soil. • The concerning government bodies has to spread awareness and represent a modal to use bio-fertilizer, which boost the yield potentials as well as decreases the metal availability to plants. • Cultivating horticulture plants like sevanthi, marigold, isabgol and guar gum help in improving soil quality.
The agricultural sector will benefit greatly from nanotech-based tools to detect diseases in a rapid manner, improve the ability of plants to absorb nutrients and promote molecular treatment of diseases. Some of the important applications of agriculture are given below: 1.1.1. Nano Scale Carriers: Nanoscale carriers can be utilized for the efficient delivery of fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, plant growth regulators, etc. The mechanisms involved in the efficient delivery, better storage and controlled release include: encapsulation and entrapment, polymers and dendrimers, surface ionic and weak bond attachments among others. These mechanisms help improve stability against degradation in the environment and ultimately reduce the amount to be applied, which reduces chemical runoff and alleviates environmental problems.