Rubrics are evaluation guides that provide feedback on several different learning objectives, recognizing where a student falls into the spectrum of proficiency for each objective. Teachers should model the use of rubrics early in the class and explain to the students the importance of the holistic grading. When the students get used to the concept, they can use the rubrics to evaluate their own progress. Through the use of rubrics the teacher can receive information that reveals gaps between students’ perceived performance and actual performance (Alpert,
As defined by Bell & Cowie (2001), there are nine characteristics of formative assessment: responsiveness; source of evidence; tacit process; use of professional knowledge and experience; integral measures between teaching and learning; assessments by teacher and student; purpose; appropriateness of process; and predicaments. Vigilant observation of students progression, allows the teacher to see beyond assumptions and predictions, and provide information to better understand and support learning outcomes used to determine students understanding. Careful thought of learning assessments are grouped into four types: observation, conversation, student self-evaluation and artefacts, all of which can take form in numerous
By establishing learning objectives, assessment methods are used to measure selected learning outcomes to see whether or not objectives have been met for the course of program. It can be done in four splendid stages. 1. Establish Learning Goals: Establishing clear, measurable expected outcomes of student learning. 2.
SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT Summative assessments are used for the learners’ skill acquisition, and their academic success. They are graded with points or percentages like exams, papers or graded projects. Generally, they are used at the end of a school term, program or unit. There are three important principles for summative assessments: • Summative assessment are used at the end of the period, for this reason they are evaluative. The goal of summative assessment is to grade the progress of learning and assess the learners’ improvement level.
According to Moss (2012, p. 235), “assessment is a process of collecting and interpreting evidence of student progress to inform reasoned judgments about what a student or group of students knows relative to the identified learning goals” and the process by which the assessment is carried out solely depends on the purpose of the assessment. In order to carry out a quality assessment, Clarke (2014) states that five key points must be considered when constructing an assessment and include clear purpose, clear targets, sound design, effective communication and students involvement. When planning an assessment the first key point, clear purpose, is of significant importance as understanding the types of assessment processes and the results they
Besides a score, which gives quantitative data about how much of the material tested a student has mastered, information about student misconceptions can be determined by analyzing which distractors they chose and why. Information from assessments helps teachers determine which instructional approaches are best for certain students, what their students may already know about a given topic, and what subjects needs to be retaught. Research indicates that assessment and accountability systems are most effective when internal and external measures are coordinated by schools and districts to improve student achievement. The entire assessment and accountability system must be interconnected and aligned – assessments aligned to the standards, which
The four language skills are then further classified into two more classifications: receptive skills (listening and reading) and productive skills (speaking and writing). The productive skills are skills in which a means of communication is produced by the student. The productive skills are writing and speaking. According to the communicative approach, the ultimate goal of language learning is language production; as such, students can be prepared for the last activity of speaking by building good foundations in the other
There are a number of approaches to improve reading comprehension, including improving one 's vocabulary and reading strategies. Tompkins (2011) defined reading comprehension as the level of understanding of a text/message. The understanding is gathered from the interaction between written words and how they stimulate the knowledge outside the text/message. On the other hand, comprehension means a creative, multifaceted processes that depend on four language skills namely phonology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatic (Pretorius, 2002). Adams (1994) mentioned that the proficiency of reading depends on the ability to understand and recognize words quickly.
It encompasses cognitive, psychomotor, and affective competences to be assessed altogether as the basis for drawing complete description of students’ ability, indicating that the assessment takes after Holistic approach as suggested by Suherdi (2012a). Furthermore, in order to facilitate the practice of assessment on those competences, varied types of assessment are introduced by Permendikbud No. 66 (2013) both for final and on-going assessment. Those are authentic assessment, self-assessment, portfolio-based assessment, quizzes, daily tests, midterm exam, the end of semester exam, level of competence exam, the quality level of competency exams, a national exam, and the schools / madrasah
For example, a classification approach is used (Minaei Bidgoli et al., 2003) to classify students to predict their final year performance based on different parameters derived from the data in an educational web-based system. A clustering algorithm is used (Tsai, Tseng, & Lin, 2009) to categorize students with similar behavioral characteristics. Association rule mining techniques have frequently been used to solve educational problems and carry out critical analysis in an academic environment for improving the learning process of student. These efforts are carried out in order to raise the standards and administration of educational processes by investigating the learning systems, learning resources arrangements, and students’ results, curriculum restructuring, and institutional websites (Damasevicius, 2009; Talavera, & Gaudioso, 2004; Erdogan, & Timor, 2005). A very comprehensive review of data mining in education from 1995 to 2005 is published in 2007 by Romero and Ventura.