4 METHODOLOGY: 4.1 STUDY DESIGN The research approach that will be employed for this research study will be in a case study form. The researcher will make use of a qualitative literature assessment approach as it will enable the researcher to use relevant literature to review an existing- or suggest a new hypothesis (Kothari:2004). Research will be analytical and instrumental, using existing information and knowledge; as well as applied, in order to find a solution to the immediate problem. 4.2 CASE STUDY The use of a case study method has been chosen by the researcher. According to Yin, (Yin: 2003a) the case study has the strength of being able to collect evidence from multiple sources citing that either qualitative data, quantitative data
Whenever a researcher is embarking on a research, he/she will be engaged in developing knowledge. Saunders et al. (2016:124) state that at every stage of the research, the researcher is bound to make several types of assumptions, whether knowingly or unknowingly. These include assumptions about human knowledge (epistemological assumptions), about the realities you encounter in your research (ontological assumptions) and the extent and ways your own values influence your research process (axiological assumptions) (Saunders et al, 2016:124). These assumptions are said to determine how the researcher understands the research questions, the methods to be used and also how findings will be interpreted.
It identifies gaps in new knowledge and suggests new directions for future research. Reviews of research literature are carried out for several reasons: (1) to assess the state of current knowledge; (2) to assess what is not known - the gaps of knowledge; (3) to advance theory; and (4) to provide statements about the policy implications of research findings. Also, good literature reviews can make strong statements about the validity of theories and can stimulate
The literature review is important for research success because it allows us to acquire an understanding of the topic we have selected, of what has already been done on it, the way in which it has been researched, and what the key issues are. That way, in our written project, we will be able to show: first, that we understand previous research in our topic; second, that we have understood the main theories in the subject area; and third, that we comprehend the main criticisms that have been made of work on the topic (Hart 1998, cited in Bell 2006, p.99). Besides, as explained in Bell (2006), the review is a part of our academic development, of becoming an expert in a field. Furthermore, we should also bear in mind that reviews are important
2 Perhaps the most important aspect of scientific research is its provability. A scientific research should be repeatable, and to be repeatable, it has to fulfill various aspects, such as having “empirical, focused questions, a careful record-keeping , and an accurate and honest reports of the findings.”(Bouma&Atkinson, 1996) The research question has to limit its scope by mentioning the details. Listing the factors and conditions which have to do with the matter at hand helps focus the question and convey the exact context of the research to the reader. When the factors are listed, it can ben seen which facts have been looked into, and being facts, they can be looked into again by anyone. This is the characteristic of what we call “facts”.
In chapter one, I initially redefined the research objectives and research questions which has been previously established in my research proposal. The most challenging part of the research was choosing the methodology. Which I later did with my knowledge of reading books such as “Research Methods for Business Students” and others on the methods. After gaining sufficient understanding of every aspects of methodology such as approaches, strategy, philosophy and data collection, I was able to move to the next challenge, how to analyse the data which I have collected. I drew from lessons learnt from other academic research.
It essentially covers what would be studied, key factors and variables, importance benefits and justification. It must contain thus a clear statement of the problem the method of solving the problem, the purpose, statement of objective and scope of the project being proposed, persuasive arguments that make the problem important for study and data that shows the depth and scope of the problem There should be a principal proposition and an interacting proposition which raises the question as to why the research is critical and the ways in which it contributes to the body of knowledge. A good problem statement would allow the researcher to define along every step of the way, almost signposting what is the framework for the research and how the methodology is aligned to the topic that is proposed. A good problem statement is also a clear indication of what the researcher is trying to prove or disprove in the
CHAPTER TWO-LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 INTRODUCTION This chapter will present, discuss and analyse some of the major discussions and competing propositions in literature on issues pertaining to the key issues which are the focus of this study. These will be drawn from various sources including peer-reviewed articles, books, journals and other publications. 2.1 What Is Collective Action? In their seminal paper, Wheatland and Chêne (2015) defines collective action as a variety of actions that are undertaken by individuals or groups or an organization that is acting on their behalf to achieve a collective purpose or shared interest of the group or individuals. As an analytical concern, Collective action is a concept that is associated with a myriad of disciplines and contexts which include economic, political, labor, development, agriculture, environment, social, governance and anti-corruption contexts to name but a few.
2.1 Introduction In this chapter, I will discuss process writing and its importance. I will review literature and research done in this area and critically examine them in relation to my study. Writing skills can be improved by determining the features of texts in the context of content, form, and construction via sufficient comprehension activities. According to Nesamalar et.al, ibid:145 (as cited in Mohd Mohathir (2005) “Process approach is the process of writing, thinking of something to write about, selecting what to include, giving shape to these ideas by organising them into an outline or plan, writing draft, revising and editing the draft and producing a final version” (p. 11). Dilidüzgün, Ş.
It is necessary for the researcher to know not only the research methods/techniques but also the methodology. The research process consists of various closely related activities. The following order concerning various steps provides a useful procedural guideline regarding the research process: i. Formulating the research problem ii. Extensive literature survey