The term “constructivism” was first introduced by Nicholas Onuf in his book World in Our Making. According to Viotti and Kauppi, Constructivism differs from neo-realist and neo-liberal who believes that identities and interest are given. Constructivist argues that states do not simply react to their environment but dynamically engage it. Hence, not the only environment influences the behavior of the actors, but also do the actors affect the environment surrounding them. To constructivist, ideas are important, particularly when it takes structural form where in which this structure can influence the behavior of both state and non-state actors.
The constructivist approach, according to Wendt, is based on two assumptions: social structures are constituted by ideas and not by the material elements; identities and interests of the actors are influenced by these social structures. Therefore, constructivism can be seen as a kind of "structural idealism" (Wendt, 1999). Unlike the neoliberal theory, constructivism affirms that the most significant international relations aspects depend on society and history (Jackson & Sorensen, 2006). Wendt 's constructivism is state-centred just like neo-realism and neo-liberalism. It differs from these approaches for the rejection of exogenous conception of national interests.
This thesis of governmentality allows Foucault to depart from the Marxist and liberal tradition that sees in the State the realization of an ideal. Foucault will see the State as a practical entity. This reading of the State makes it possible to see that the governance of bodies and population is given through of rationalities of government, outside of particular power
Political analysts attempt to provide an understanding of the workings of the modern state had necessitated the employment of certain philosophies, thoughts and theories in order to simplify and clarify their assumptions about the political system and how it works. Some of these analytical tools or methods include – the Systems theory, Group theory, Political Development theory, Power theory, Frustration Aggression theory and the Elites theory among others. Given these plethora of theories in the social sciences and bearing in mind that, no meaningful research can be undertaken in the absence of a sound theoretical base, this study adopts the Systems theory in order to explain the adoption of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by the United
Furthermore, the ontology of this particular social theory is concerned with reality. Reality is thought of as an individual construct dependent to different situations while applied to hermeneutical phenomenological research. Hereafter, it is based on the belief that realities are multiple. In addition, we tackled on two important people who are important in hermeneutical phenomenology. These people were Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger.
Neo-Gramscianism in Sociology of International Relations: Robert Cox Neo-Gramscianism is a critical theory based on the study of international relations and global political economy. This theory explores different ideas, institutions and material capabilities, how do these ideas form the specific contours of the state appearance. The main idea of this theory is strongly influenced by the works of Antonio Gramsci. Neo-Gramscianism analyzes the way in which the specific social forces, the state and the dominant ideological formations define and maintain world order. On this basis, neo-Gramscian approach destroys long-term stagnation and contradictions that exist between the so-called realist school of thought and liberal theory.
One of them is socio-centrism which is the focus of the topic. Human socio-centrism conceptualized most simply as group egocentricity. According to oxford dictionary socio-centrism is defined as dominant or principal focus on society or the community, rather than the individual. Socio-centrism thought basically operates from two central tendencies: i. Be in quest to get what it wants without considering the right and needs of others.
According to (Hechter & Kanazawa, 1997) rational choice theory is, "an intrinsically multilevel enterprise. It strives for social consequences on the foundation of both social circumstance and individual action." Nevertheless, the records and their elucidation remain at the collective level, for the theory does not endeavor to explain the actions of a rational person in a specific situation. Rational choice theorists consider both macro- and micro-level features to be significant contributing factors of outcomes, but empirical findings emphasized more on structural factors for methodological explanations related to limitations on quantitative measurement of individual values and reasoning (Hechter & Kanazawa 1997:193). Sociological rational choice theorists on the other hand take into account individual cognitive practices and values.
Such a distinction assists in the determination of the validity of rules without considering subjective morals. According to Hart, primary rules refer to the legal rules which impose duties and obligations on society and which in turn guide our behaviours. Alternatively, secondary rules are those rules which provide a criteria of validity through which the primary rules may be modified, introduced or enforced. According to Hart, a society with only primary rules will face various challenges, but such challenges can be remedied through the following three categories of secondary rules; rules of recognition, rules of change and rules of adjudication. The secondary rules are social rules and are essential to assist with the validity of primary rules.
This article engages with the theories of Foucault and Agamben and focuses on their work on resistance. It studies the different construction to the concept of individual, which termed into singularity or life itself. In Agamben theory, dispositive represents the power relation network, articulates how a power not based upon classical conception of sovereignty is a key term in Focualt thought that human being is transformed into both an object and subject, on power relation. Agamben also focus on that how dispositif specially operates as an apparatus to control humanity. In analyzing the term dispositif Foucault and Agamben are look like offering two different pproaches for considering of free social life from the binds of oppressive social