Data hiding is the art of hiding data for various purposes such as; to maintain private data, secure confidential data and so on. There are lots of techniques used for data hiding; Steganography and Watermarking; Steganography is an ancient well-known technology which has many applications even in today’s modern society. It is the art and science of hiding a secret message within a cover media in such way that only intended recipient have knowledge about secret message and the extraction of it at its destination. Cover media can be image, audio, video, text and network. It is concerned with sending a secret message while hiding its existence.
Steganography plays a major role in secret data communication. It is nothing but to communicate in such a way that not only the contents are hidden but also the existence of message is kept secret which makes it different from cryptography which concerns only with keeping the contents secret. Steganography and cryptography they both have the same purpose that is, to provide security to our data. But, they have a different approach. Steganography deals with making the data unseen and cryptography deals with making the data unreadable.
Cryptography is one of widely used technique of secret writing which is the term used for data and information security and protects that information from various attacks. Cryptography is the process of converting a known text or plaintext into a human unreadable format called cipher text by encoding the original message using some encoding technique. Security is concerned with the protection of the network and data transmission over the network. Data Security is the most essential aspect of secure data transmission over the network. But to achieve complete data security is a challenging issue of data communication.
They are ‘fully secret trust’ and half secret trust. The understanding of the difference of these two types is vital for a better understanding. In a fully secret trust the terms of the trust and the intended secret beneficiary‘s names or any indication as to the existence of the secret trust are not mentioned in the will. Therefore on the face of the will it will look like the testator has given an outright gift to the intended trustee. Accordingly a fully secret trust arises when the trustee appears to take an absolute gift under A’s (testator) will but, the trustee has informally agreed with A to hold the subject matter to B (beneficiary).
The amendment also prevents worry of government trespassing without a warrant. However, the government could be trying to find a terrorist, for example, and be searching phones and/or emails. Furthermore, the Fourth Amendment guarantees people the right to privacy, makes American Citizens feel safe, and precludes worry about
TRADE SECRETS A trade secret is the legal term for confidential business information. It can include any information that is valuable to its owner and that the latter wants to keep secret. Trade secret may include customer lists, recipes and formulas, special processes, devices, methods, techniques, business plans, research and development information, etc. In general, protection is sought to safeguard a trade secret from exploitation by those who obtain access through improper means or who breach an obligation of confidentiality. (ESA, 2013) Protecting a trade secret There is no formal registration or application procedure for trade secrets.
P8.4. a. Preventive controls such as authentication so anyone trying accessing the system has to provide credentials and verify their identity, encryption so sensitive information cannot be accessed, and have a strong internal environment that educates employees on security measures. Detective controls such as log analysis could be used to show determine if someone is trying to log on to a system and is unsuccessful. Corrective controls such as having an effective CIRT that can access the laptop and block or delete important information so the theft cannot access the laptop.
Cryptography is a technique or method to secure personal data from unauthorized user. In cryptography two types of operation are performed. (i) Encryption and (ii) Decryption. To encrypt and decrypt data a secret key is used. After encryption original data is converted into another format known as cyphertext, which is not easy to understand.
The N.S.A collected this information by tracking phone calls, text messages, emails and chats without the consent of the individuals involved. N.S.A. justified it as a way to protect National Security. The ethical issues that were involved in this case were: the stealing of government property, the disclosure of confidential information, the risk of human lives and
The government seems to believe that spying on its citizen is an effective way to find criminals. However, the cause of this action outweighs the benefits because it is too risky and in some cases, can not be trusted. In the current status quo, organizations like the NSA and other intelligent agencies seem to be intercepting civilians private actions. Phone calls, E-mails, credit card information, and metro card can all be viewed by the government and used to investigate people's day to day action. By linking all these information together, the government can learn what an individual is doing, with who, where, and when.
a) Not true, the message can also be decrypted with the Public Key b) A so called “one way function with back door” is applied for the encryption c) The Public Key contains a special function which is used to encrypt the message and which can only be reversed by the appropriate Private Key d) The encrypted message contains the function for decryption which identifies the Private Key Answer:b 9. What is the main drawback of the symmetric Encryption? a) More complex and therefore more time-consuming calculations b) Problem of the secure transmission of the Secret Key c) Less secure encryption function d) Isn’t used any more Answer:b 10. What is the purpose a key during encrypt a message? a) The key indicates which function is used for encryption.
3. Don’t allow any program remember (such as internet explorer) your passwords. It is risky. Hackers could steal such passwords without your knowledge. You should rather install a reputable password manager to remember your passwords.
4. Strong collision: given a message M1, it is not possible to find two distinct messages such that h (M1’) = h (M1). The probability of this collision is 2n/2. Hash function is used in message authentication which uses a secret code before hashing so that no one else can modify the message and hash and then can encrypt the message for confidentiality. There are several ways of applying hash for message authentication: 1.
This isn’t the first time something like this has happened. When the FBI wiretapped a conversation in order to arrest people for illegal gambling without a warrant the Supreme Court ruled that they had an expectation of privacy and that law enforcement must have a warrant to wiretap. Their decision was based off when you say something to the public it is not protected by the 4th amendment, but when you try to keep it private even if it is in a public place it is protected. I think the solution is that the Supreme Court should make a decision based off their previous ruling because the defendants kept it private and even took additional measures to make sure no one else knew, like masking their IP address by using
“The NSA is not listening to Americans ' phone calls or monitoring their emails” (Does the Government). As the government states they are permitted to collect any Americans communications The Fourth Amendment protects your privacy, for instance the police cannot search personal properties. Due to the definition of "the right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers,” it makes people feel secure (Legal Information). In addition, it prevents all irrelevant searches that are not useful. On the other hand the Fourth Amendment makes it challenging for law enforcement to gather information.