There are several types of water pollutants; one category is the microbiological, which refers to the contamination of viruses and bacteria in water. Another category is nutrient pollution, which is caused by excessive amount of nutrients in water supplies, making it undrinkable. Chemical water pollution refers to the chemical compounds that end up in water supplies. Many industries contaminate water with toxic or radioactive materials and sometimes use rivers and lakes to dispose of waste heat, resulting in thermal pollution. Water quality is threatened by many sources, besides fecal matter, water is exposed to many toxic substances.
In order to achieve atomization, atomizer should overcome the feed surface tension. The higher liquid feed surface tension, more difficult to an atomizer. Therefore, there are criteria for spray dryer design selection in order to enhance spray dryer functionality. Apart from atomizer parameter, the atomization device also vital to drying process because different types of atomizer contribute to different utilizing spray drying as an economical drying method. This is mean unsuitable atomizer device used for spray drying process may lead to unfavorable powder obtained and cause loss.
Pollution is one of the most serious issues the world confronts today. It means adding contamination to environment. The nature 's domain consists of earth, water, air, plants and creatures. If we contaminate them, then the presence of man and nature will be hampered, and our naturally beautiful world becomes ugly because it is suffering from the effects of environmental pollution. There are many types of pollution, namely water, air and noise.
Abstract Every machine and process in manufacturing industry has its own modes of failure. In manufacturing industries, production machine failures can create many inconveniences. It may be responsible for machine downtime, unavailability, customer dissatisfaction, increased maintenance time and production costs, lower product quality, and delivery time delay. In chemical or nuclear plants, failures might be very expensive (catastrophic effects) in terms of money and safety. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a risk assessment tool that reduces potential failures in systems, processes, designs or services and has been used in a wide range of industries.
It is usually treated by physical or chemical treatment process. These include physical or chemical flocculation, flotation, electro-flotation, membrane-filtration, electro kinetic–coagulation, electro chemical-destruction, and precipitation. These conventional chemical and physical methods are versatile and useful, but they only transfer the pollutant from one form to another, and produced secondary waste products. But these types of technologies are inefficient, expensive and have low adaptability to diverse type of dye effluent. Traditional methods for the cleanup of dyes in the textile waste water usually involve the removal of unwanted materials through sedimentation, filtration and chemical treatments such as flocculation, neutralization and electro-dialysis before disposal.
It can be fabricated as films, fibers, and other packaging material. However, some disadvantages of polylactic acid are its inherent hydrophobic nature which makes it difficult for adhesion and its weak thermal properties compared to synthetic polymers [1-3]. The hydrophobic nature of polylactic acid also can elicit inflammatory response in the tissue when used as scaffolds for tissue engineering . Hence, there is still a need to modify the properties of polylactic acid fibers. One type of modification technique is matrix polymer modification wherein the PLA fibers are mechanically or chemically reinforce.
Glyphosate is already known to be in the human system in bodily fluids but it can also alter the chemistry of our bodies and cause malfunctions at the molecular level. When glyphosate is consumed, it inhibits out P450 gene pathway. This pathway synthesizes enzymes that are very important to our physiology. These enzymes are involved in most membranes and tissues in our bodies. The enzymes also are involved in breaking down and removing toxins from chemicals like those found in glyphosate itself (Walia n.pag.).
From the above paragraphs is it clear that waste is a very broad concept that is defined differently from the jurisdictions or regions around the world. Below is a brief definition of what hazardous waste is. A ‘hazardous waste’ is defined as “an inorganic element or compound that, because of its toxicological, physical, chemical or persistency properties, may exercise detrimental acute or chronic impacts on human health and the environment (DWAF, 1998). Hazardous waste can be generated from a wide range of commercial, industrial, agricultural and domestic activities and may take the form of liquid, sludge or solid. These characteristics contribute not only to degree of hazard, but are also of great importance in the ultimate choice of a safe