Action research allows theories and research related to best practice to understand and observe what is happening in a classroom, simultaneously, this data can be used to understand theories and research related to best practice (Johnson, 2012). When teachers collect their own data to make informed decisions for implementing the strategies that best meet the needs of their students , student achievement is enhanced (Book, 1996; Erickson, 1986; Hensen, 1996; Zeichner & Norfolke, 2001; Marks & Louis, 1997; Sweetland & Hoy, 2002). Action research can be used in schools to improve curriculum designing, faculty development, decision-making, planning, and organizational
Benefits of Action Research in Curriculum Development Field (1998, p.49, cited in Brown, 2012), advocating classroom research in English teaching, highlights two points as important reasons for classroom based action research benefiting curriculum change, especially in the ELT field. Firstly, he mentions that although there are universal similarities between classes, in reality each one is unique due to such factors as the different mix of levels, student backgrounds, nationalities and personalities as well as of the motivations leading the students to be there. Centralized research, in the same way as the class textbook is used, needs to be adapted for each particular situation. Curriculum change is a fact of life and action research can be
Even though action research is gaining popularity in the research arena, it has been challenged if it is “a legitimate form of inquiry” (Stringer, 2014, p. 41). There are a variety of reasons why this is so. Cohen and Manion (1985) point out the main drawback in action research that it lack what is commonly understood to be scientific rigor, related to the validity, reliability and replicability of research. Nunan (2006) and Burns (1999) both identify that researcher faces problems when conducting action research: the teacher/researcher may find it difficult to critically reflect on their own teaching practice at the same time, and may lacks expertise in carrying out such a project. There can be also difficulties in identifying participants,
The educator Schön (1983, 1987) argues strongly that systematic reflection is an effective way for practitioners to learn. Action research is usually participative. This implies a partnership between you and your clients. You may find this more ethically satisfying. For some purposes it may also be more occupationally
W. And Changeiywo, J. M. (2008) conducted a study aimed at finding out yhe effect of Mastery Learning Approach (MLA) on students’ achievement in physics. Agboghoroma, T. E. (2009) examines the interaction effects of instructional mode and school setting on students’ knowledge of integrated science. Gok, T. and Silay, I. (2010) study was to examine the effects of teaching of the problem solving strategies on the students’ physics achievement, strategy level, attitude and achievement motivation. Hence, we see that all the studies reported above were conducted in different subject either to verify the effectiveness of the various methods or to find out the gaps.
The purpose of the study is clearly stated at the end of the introduction which is developing an astronomy concept inventory to evaluate the undergraduates’ understanding of earth motion, moon and moon phases. Also, the problem is clearly stated. But the introduction has not been without drawbacks as the researcher claimed that there are many studies concerning students’ conceptual understanding of some astronomical concepts without providing a valid source. So, for this part to be enhanced an updated source should be cited to support his credibility, and how these results are related to his study and its effects on astronomy conceptual understanding. This is also a missing part in the title as it does not indicate the aim of the inventory, so the main target of that inventory should be added in the title.
They also learn from their past experiences that forms as a knowledge base from which they draw learning concepts (Sommers 1989). They require reinforcement to be a part of the learning process so as to correct mistakes in their performance. Hanson (1996) argued that the difference in learning is related to individual characteristics and differs in context, culture and power but not related to the age and stage of one's life. Future of Andragogy Malcom Knowles pioneered the adult learning theory but much more can be looked upon based on the various factors that affect it. Keeping Knowles theory of andragogy in mind, further studies can be done to go beyond his version and include broader perspectives in the field.
Many at times we look upon knowledge gained from external sources and experts rather than from personal experience. Thus reflection becomes productive when one is able to understand one’s practice which leads to changes. The effectiveness of reflection can only be observed by investing considerable time in observation and discussion. Neither a single lesson observation nor a checklist would be able to ascertain the effectiveness of a reflective educator. To assess the extent to which an educator is being reflective would require multiple lesson observations coupled with subsequent discussions with attention paid to details such as assumptions, beliefs, and scenarios being slot in.
One weakness of participatory research may reflect within disciplines as deficiency in precision and reliability that resulted in participatory researchers being considered as lacking academic integrity. Much of participatory research commenced within vertical programmers retains its own complications. Consequently, to settle down the demands of funding agencies, researchers struggle hard (Cornwall and Jewkes, 1995). FACE TO FACE SEMI- STRUCTURED
Methods: Students and lecturers at five colleges were given the opportunity to study and teach using a more interactive method of teaching. The core elements of active learning are student activity and engagement in the learning process. Active learning is completely the opposite to the traditional lecture where students passively receive information from the teacher (2). Active learning included any activity, encouraging students to participate in learning approaches to engaging them with course material and enhancing critical thinking as they make applications beyond the classroom. Specifically, pupils were required to engage in a variety of in-class and out-of class exploratory writing assignments and pairs and other small group discussions interspersed among short lectures