Differentiation, with respect to instruction, means tailoring it to meet individual needs of the students. Teachers can differentiate content, process, products, or the learning environment, the use of ongoing assessment and flexible grouping makes this a successful approach to instruction. Teachers differentiate the four classroom elements based on student readiness, interest, or learning profile. (Tomlinson 2000). Differentiated instruction can be known as an organizing framework in teaching and learning which calls for a major restructuring in the classroom and syllabus, if done in the proper way, its benefits will transgress the costs.
The theories of learning have undertaken important developments over the years to determine how best an educator can develop their students to survive in the 21st century. The major advancements in education have focused its attention on learning that concentrates on skills and competencies (Dumont et al, 2010). “Learning is a process of active engagement with experiences and involves the development or deepening of skills, knowledge, understanding, values, ideas and feelings” (Museums, Libraries and Archives Council, 2008). Many theorists have realized that the classroom should not only be a particular set of education experiences that develop students academically but additionally to enhance their social skills, which are critical to work
A learning theory incorporates principles which aim at explaining changes in human performance, providing a set of instructional strategies, tactics, techniques to select from and the foundation for how and when to choose and integrate the strategies5. Learning theories offer insights into “what promotes learning effectiveness and how students learn”. Learning theories are based on principles that can guide effective teaching practice and facilitate deep versus surface learning”. Thus, to have the disposition that is required to be acquired by the learner, curriculum designers need to consider relevant and appropriate learning theories during curriculum design and implementation. The more learning theories are integrated in the curriculum design process; the more likely learners can be accommodated within the programme.
Bernstein’s pedagogic device is a coherent collection between the curriculum policy and classroom practice. According to Bernstein (1996), the pedagogic device is an attempt to describe the principles which underlie the transformation of knowledge into pedagogic communications. The main focus of the device is to understand how education can be understood. The pedagogic device provides an underlying, hierarchically, inter-related structure of rules, namely the distributive, the recontextualising and the evaluative. These rules have a necessary inter-relationship as well as power relations between them.
Learning to constructivist is an active process aiming to develop learners’ new ideas based on their current and experience and knowledge (Brandon & All, 2010). Constructivism as a learning theory centers its principles on helping the learning process unlike controlling it as in the view of behaviorism (Lober, 2006). Key contributors to the development of this theoretical approach include Lev Vygotsky, Jean Piaget, and Ernst von Glasersfeld. (Liu & Chen, 2010). The constructivist perspective challenges the traditional way of thinking about how knowledge is acquired as well as challenging objectivism, a concept central to the behaviorist view of learning since objectivism paved the way for the rise of a behaviorist perspective of teaching and learning.
Perhaps objectives are the directive factors for the course writers to decide on the instructor teaching and learning activities, it determines the formal and informal assessment methods as well as the evaluation techniques to be exercised. Well defined objectives will bring change in the knowledge, attitude and behaviour of the learners. In order to successfully address the four segments, you have to write SMART objectives. These objectives ought to furnish sufficient information to measure the learning outcomes. Similarly, it has to be realistic and gives you a leverage to tweak your teaching and learning activities based on you and your learner’s strengths, as well as the other external factors which is interrelated to your learning programme.
Considering the importance of classroom grouping in the teaching and learning processes, the researcher investigated the employment of classroom grouping at MAN 2 Model Palu. This is an Islamic High School emphasizing its learning process on active, creative, effective, and innovative learning in developing the students’ intellectual and skill. This mission related to School Based Curriculum that promotes student centered learning. The students are expected to be active in each subject, including English. Basically, they are expected to not only learn the concepts and the theories, but also the application of those concepts and theories.
Brown confirmed the importance and complication of this step. He also suggested how to maximize the benefits of portfolio assessment – authenticity and washback when offering opportunities for both self assessment and peer assessment. Brown recommended a number ways to assess portfolio such as self- assessment questions, Portfolio self- assessment questionnaire, checklist, peer – feedback. Designate time within the curriculum for portfolio development. Teacher should arrange enough time to students to deal with their portfolio which have to be fit with the curriculum.
Assessment is an essential component of teaching. Recently, the importance of assessment has increased even further. Genesee and Upshur (1996) refer to students’ achievement as one of the most important focus of classroom-based assessment. They believe that “teachers need to know what and how much students have learned in order to monitor the effectiveness of instruction, to plan ongoing instruction, and for accountability purposes” (p. 47). Assessment can be done at different stages: Assessment at the end of each unit of instruction is probably useful for both internal and external purposes; in other words, it is of interest to, teachers for planning instruction, students for organizing their own learning, school authorities for accountability,
In the 19th century the two missionaries came to Fiji and introduced the concept of schooling or to introduce formal education, but before they came traditional education was existed such as education was concerned with continuity and maintenance of the community. According to Kerr he defines curriculum as all the learning which is planned and guided by the school, whether it is carried on in groups or individually, inside and outside the school. Curriculum is the total learning experience provided by a school which includes the content of courses, the methods employed and other aspects, which relate to the way the school is organized(Kerr,2009). Sharpes further explains that curriculum is "what the teacher does and what the teacher knows, and who the teacher is the teacher 's behavior, knowledge and personality”. In this essay, I will be discussing on the present development and implementation of the curriculum in our country and also I will be stating some solutions in order to improve the curriculum development and implementation processes in our beloved country.