Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by the American psychologist Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper “A Theory of Human Motivation”. This is a theory shows that every human needs and wants something, and there will always be something to drive them to achieving
In 1954, Maslow’s theory was fully expressed in his book Motivation and Personality. He divided human need into five classes, including physiological needs, such as food and water; security needs, such as safety working conditions; love and belongings, such as friendship; self-esteem needs like recognition; and self-actualization needs like personal dream goals. Maslow pointed that only the lower level of needs is satisfied, people can pursue the upper level of needs. However, money can achieve self-esteem and physiological needs simultaneously. In addition, there is also a problem in deciding when a level has actually been
1- Motivation according to Maslow theory Abraham Maslow had developed the hierarchy of needs model in 1940-50’s USA, and till then the hierarchy of needs theory remains valid today for understanding human motivation, management training, and personal development. Abraham Maslow 's theory of motivation asserts that humans are motivated by a hierarchy of needs. They act to fulfill basic survival needs before addressing more advanced needs or wants. This hierarchy is shaped like a pyramid, with the lower levels occupied by physical, physiological needs such as food, water and shelter. Self-actualization is at the peak of the pyramid of needs.
1. Needs of employees and application of motivation theories at Microsoft Microsoft employees are smart because they are selected by difficult and complicated interview questions. Therefore, the new employees are easily accepted by the old colleagues in the company. According to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory, it suggested that needs are separate to five level which are physiology, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization in ascending order. When a need is satisfied and fulfilled, they loss motivating effect and people tends to fight for a higher level of needs.
1. INTRODUCTION The purpose of submitting this report is that a critical review have been done on the journal ' The impact of employee motivation on organizational performance (A study of some selected firms in Anambara State Nigeria), which is using primary data for the research. Employee motivation is a widely researched area. This is due to the positive effects motivation has on organizations and their performance. Research shows that motivated employees tend to display more positive work attitudes than employees who are not motivated.
The writer thinks that it is of paramount importance that one should direct attention towards understanding job satisfaction and dissatisfaction, in order to better understand motivation. Hence, the following theories and thinking on job satisfaction and motivation haved been considered. 2.1.1 Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs Maslow devised this theory in 1943, with the aim of identifying the dynamics of motivation, which leads to job satisfaction. According to the theory, a framework was devised in a hierarchical manner, (as depicted in figure 1), thus ranking the factors (needs) in ascending order, namely; physiological, safety, social, esteem and self- actualization . • Psychological Needs These take the form of basic needs which are aligned with the survival of an individual, such as, food, water, air, and in an organizational sense, compensation.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is a diagram of a triangle with physiological needs at the bottom and self-actualization at the top. To be a good manager it’s crucial to understand what motivates your employees. If you employees fall into the Theory X category then it means they are motivated by lower order needs such as money and security. If your employees fall into Theory Y then it means they are motivated actualization and esteem needs. Knowing what category employees identify with will help you with the overall management process.
That is, the needs are satisfied in sequence. According to Maslow’s , a person desiring job security would dedicate his or her efforts to ensure it and gram would not be concerned with seeking recognition. Maslow also claimed that higher levels of satisfaction for a particular need decrease its potential as a motivator. There are some criticisms to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory. One main criticism is that there is little empirical evidence to support Maslow’s assumptions (Drenth, Thierry & Willems, 1984).
It also criticizes Maslow’s hierarchy of needs by claiming that his study was conducted a long time ago and is not dynamic. ARTICLE 6: MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS This article provides a comprehensive view of Maslow’s work motivation theory. It analyses all the basic needs of employees in an organization and ranks them in a specific order. REVIEW: Maslow developed a need hierarchy theory in the year 1943 which states that people are sometimes motivated to fulfil certain needs not based on their desires or the expected rewards, but due to certain motivation systems. He also stated that as one need is fulfilled, another need takes its place, and hence human needs are recurring in nature.
TWO FACTOR MODEL: Herzberg developed one of the earliest theories relating job satisfaction in 1950s. His two factor theory emphasis that there are factors in the workplace that create satisfaction (motivators) and those which lead to dissatisfaction if they are not present (hygiene factor). There are four motivators in the theory: achievement, recognition, responsibility, and administration, working condition, and security. The implication of the theory is the satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not opposite end of the same scale and job satisfaction may merely be absence of job satisfaction. Herzberg argues that it is necessary to have hygiene factor at acceptable levels simply to reach a neutral feeling about the job.