This essay will be discussing two different theories of learning; Behaviorism and Constructivism. Watson and Skinner, two major theorists of the behaviorist theory tried to prove that human behavior could be controlled and foreseen. Both Skinner and Watson investigated how learning could be affected by a change in ones environment. However, the constructivist theory viewed learning as an exploration of meaning. Piaget and Vygotsky, two of the major advocates for Constructvist theory, both explored factors that could help figure out how children understand learning at different stages in their lives.
Introduction The personality perspective has been described by many theorists in order to explain behaviors behind a functioning person. There has been legendary theorists’ underlying this perspective, with different views and observations of understanding personalities exceptionally well. Regardless of lack of prominence in some approaches, their terminology and ideas still influence psychology today (Meyer, 2008). Only the two theories of Carl Rogers and Victor Frankl have been applied in the case study of Thapelo and Lerato. The Carl Rogers theory of the self-concept will explain the development and structure of personality, whereas Victor Frankl’s theory will explain the meaning of life as a dynamic of personality.
The role of the therapist in relation to the client is also explored, and explains just how important this relationship and type of therapy is to the field. The main idea of this research piece is to analyze psychoanalysis, and the therapeutic process as a unit working in tandem with each other. Overview of Psychoanalysis Psychoanalysis was founded by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939). Freud believed that people could be cured by making conscious their unconscious
In Freud earlier papers, he observed that the human mind was capable of detaching from the emotional component of a lived experience, and projecting it onto a substitute object or manifesting as physcial symptom. Freud described this as “splitting of affect” which was primarily used as a line of defense. However, it was only after the case of "Dora" that Freud began to realize that "transference" was not just a type of resistance, but in fact, part of the psychoanalytic process. In the case of “Dora” which may be one of Freud’s most frustrating cases, in so far, that he felt that if he had managed the case more effectively he may have brought about healing for Dora, Freud states: "I did not succeed in mastering the transference in good time" (Freud, 1905, p.160). However, this oversight led to the further development of the concept transference, Freud realised that transference was more than just an obstacle, he stated that it involved the revisiting of old psychical conflicts.
Psychobiography: Final Reflection on Theories of Personality It is documented that personality is what all about psychosomatic system’s approach of any person that take a broad view of his/her behavior and outlook (Feist & Gregory, 2009). But, for this paper, when I go into the detail study, which aimed at analyzing assorted personality theories with human behavior, I have found leading categories regarding theories of personality, explaining unlike human behaviors and outlooks. However, the given study does not meet its expected goal of finding personality theories to understand human behavior absolutely, but then again, it has accumulated critical information regarding different factors and dynamics’ role in getting useful data about human behavior through studied personality’s theories. In truth, I have garnered worthwhile materials about the personality theories along with human behavior. The thesis of the paper- Focus upon my exploration on the different types of personality theories, I learn that different personality theories have a big part in understanding the human behavior and it also serves me well; still, it is also true that I am unable to comprehend human behavior and crux of the considered personality theories.
Allport believed that the set of labels that describe a particular person reflects that person’s central traits (those that are usually obvious to others and that organize and control behavior in many different situations). He also believed that people possess secondary traits (those that are more specific to certain situations and control far less behavior). Allport’s research helped to lay the foundation for modern research on personality traits. His focus on the uniqueness of each personality made it difficult to draw conclusions about the structure of personality in general (Bernstein,
Like Freud, Erikson assumes that a crisis occurs at each stage of development. For Erikson (1963), these crises are of a psychosocial nature because they involve psychological needs of the individual (i.e. psycho) conflicting with the needs of society (i.e. social). According to the theory, successful completion of each stage results in a healthy personality and the acquisition of basic virtues.
“Becoming human is a project and our task is not so much to discover who we are, as to create ourselves” (Corey, 2013, p.129). As one of the primary existential thinkers, Kierkegaard speculated that human discontent must be overcome through inside knowledge. Nietzsche additionally built up the hypothesis of existentialism by presenting the idea of free will and personal moral obligation. Otto Rank was among the primary existential therapists to effectively seek after the dicipline train and by the mid 20th century, psychologist Paul Tillich and Rollo May brought existential therapy into the spotlight through their works and research. The prevalent approach started to impact different theories and methods, including the humanistic field, created by Viktor Frankl.
Those mechanisms are functions carried out by the ego. They are a strategic effort by the ego to deal with socially unacceptable impulses of the id. According to S. Freud’s definition, reaction formation is when an individual feels an unacceptable impulse, however only express the opposite. In the article the authors describe reaction formation exactly as Freud did. Overall, there has been plenty of studies to show whether this defense mechanism is still valid
Some of the prime components of the foundation are epistemology, methodology, and method, all of which are interrelated and cemented together. The result of these contributes to the authenticity, reliability, and clarity that enables qualitative methodology to deliver such compelling results, and how researchers and participants are able corroborate in any study. Epistemology, in a most general way, is that branch of philosophy which is concerned with the value and origin of human knowledge, (Dubray (1909). "Epistemology determines and is made visible through method, particularly involving the participant. It also determines the objects of every social science by ascertaining their differentiating characteristics, and fixed their relations and common principles, the beginnings of their development and their special methods".