When you have to perform a peer review, you have to have respect for someone’s thoughts. A scientific practitioner must give a honest and complete overview of his skills. - the quality or state of being
Research ethics are determine through different research methods and strategy, as well as the research design. The principle of ethical issues is that the researcher must protect confidentiality of data and the anonymity and privacy as well as obtaining informed consent of the participant. Regarding to surveys, it is comparatively easier to achieve informed consent from participant, as all questions are structured and designed before the research take place. Conversely, in depth interview cannot be structured and planned before the research, majority of questions arises during the process of interview, make it even harder to let respondents know what to expect from the interview. Nonetheless, in order to address this ethical issue, researchers should explain clearly to the research participants.
Therefore, their involvement in research should be placed within the context of British Educational Research Association guidelines and the international rights-based framework to guarantee the safety and the rights of the researchers and the participants. In the process of data collection, especially through interviews and questionnaires there are numerous ethical issues. They may arise at any time, from the heart of the first step of data collection known as voluntary informed consent to openness and disclosure, right to withdraw, children, privacy, confidentiality, anonymity, validity and reliability. By completing this poster, it was comprehended that there are several ethical issues involved in different data collecting methods and the importance of considering the ethical issues when collecting
It is necessary for the researcher to know not only the research methods/techniques but also the methodology. The research process consists of various closely related activities. The following order concerning various steps provides a useful procedural guideline regarding the research process: i. Formulating the research problem ii. Extensive literature survey
Example of such data can be grants submitted for publication, personnel records, military secrets and medical records etc. Social interaction is another category of ethical aspects. Researcher should prevent or mitigate social harms through research and public
One of the main ethical concerns to be addressed when conducting research is that participants have to be clearly informed about “the purpose, aims, use of results, and likely consequences of the study” (Stringer, 2013 p. 89); in other words, it is vital to obtain the informed consent of participants. In AR, where more control is given to the participants than in other forms of research, consent is a form of agreement between the participants and the researcher (ibid, p. 90). The researcher needs to inform the participants explicitly about all the research activities and participants should be to continue to ask questions during and after the AR project has been completed. Participants should feel entirely free to decline participation in the project, and it is the researcher's duty to explain that their willingness or refusal to participate will not affect their academic achievement in any way. The same conditions should be in place for continuing involvement, where participants should be aware that they are free to withdraw from the study at any given time.
Researchers, often pressured by their employers for results, or in competition with other teams working on the same topic, will either work with a small sample or ignore undesirable correlations to focus solely on the ones that serve their goals. In some fields it has been proven that nothing was truly discovered and that all the false findings were only the results of prevailing bias that was introduced by the pioneers. By conducting a series of test to calculate the probability for a research finding to be true under certain conditions, the author found that there are fields where the chance to have true findings was very low, close to null, but still numerous studies in those fields were
Journals usually practice peer-reviewed publications, where editors solicit referees to review paper that were submitted to their journals (Meier, 1992). Reviewers are selected due to their expertise in the subject written on, in which they would be competent enough to evaluate whether the work is of high quality or in other words, being accurate in facts, clear and concise in writing, and free of plagiarism. The decisions of the reviewer and the editorial board in turns affect the impact factor of the journal, where journals with higher impact factors are deemed to be of higher influence in its field (Althouse et al., 2009; Council of
Therefore, it is necessary to address these issues when deciding to conduct research. Some of the possible ethical issues that could arise from this research are: • Informed consent: This requires the researcher to provide the interviewee/person taking the survey with various necessary information such as the purpose of the research, risk or benefits, the time requirements, contact information in case they have some further questions. • Privacy/confidentiality: Since the research deals with individuals’ perceptions and views on the subject matter, it is necessary that their replies are confidential and do not harm them in any manner (personally or professionally). • Voluntary participation: In order to get the best outcomes from a survey, it is necessary to ensure participants that their participation is voluntary. During the research, it will be ensured that no participants are coerced into
Research also requires expertise. • Research involve the quest for answers to unsolved problems • Research should be carefully recorded and reported and that research sometimes requires courage this could be due to opposition of political and religious authorities. 1.1 PERSONAL CONTEXT Basavanthappa (2007) opined that research helps to portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situations or a group. Personally, research at every stage is a painstaking exercise. As a researcher there is the need to be open minded and be positive to all possibilities.