However, this method need not be first hand; the researcher can observe the previously recorded interactions and apply this method to study it. The whole purpose of this type of a method of research is that it gives us clues and hints to the other layers of reality (Interpreting Quality Data; pg 234; Description) However, without any meaning to the words, any type of a research on anyone does not hold significance. The whole point of ethnography is that the researcher gets an insight of how the things work and why people do what they do. The acquired content is the research done on the subject which helps the researchers to understand how people act in a certain social situation(Jane Stokes; Chapter 4; Pg 114). But as mentioned previously, the researchers will fail at relating the subjects’ actions to any social PHENOMENA without knowing the meanings and the history of the cultural
This statement about the focus of ethnographic work is inclusive of at least “three different approaches to school ethnography: holistic studies of schooling within the context of particular communities or institutions. And studies of schooling practice and function across different levels of an institutional hierarchy (e.g., Mehan, Hertweck, and Meihls 1986). It is also inclusive of a wide variety of data collection strategies and techniques, including direct observation, formal and in formal interviewing, written note-taking, or various forms of "ma chine-recording". From the perspective of the author and following this line the administrators and ethnographer play their own role without interacting. They might do their work well but information
Ethnography is the study of social interactions, behaviours, and perceptions that occur within groups, teams, organisations, and communities. The central aim of ethnography is to provide rich, holistic insights into people’s views and actions. (Reeves et al, 2017). The term ethnography has come to be equated with virtually any qualitative research project where the intent is to provide a detailed, in-depth description of everyday life and practice. Qualitative research can be described as social science research in comparison to quantitative research is statistically orientated research (Hoey, 2017).
He applied ethnographic research method which help him to gather the ideas of information they require to understand the social complexities and inner beliefs of people and community. He was able deal with new culture very nicely and never respect his informants by keeping theit identity secretly. In conclusion, all anthropologists face ethical dilemmas. They should respect the emotions and feelings of every individual while conducting research. While involving in fieldwork anthropologist should look over enculturation.
Chapter three discusses the research design and methodology used for the current study. The chapter begins with a discussion of the rational for choosing a qualitative design. Qualitative methodologies that were considered for the current study are discussed next followed by the rational for selecting a focused ethnography. Ethical considerations will then be discussed and the researcher describes how principles of autonomy, beneficence and non-maleficence, justice and respect were adhered to. The chapter continues with a discussion about sampling, recruitment and data collection.
Methodology The researcher used an ethnographic approach as a part of her research methodology along with a range of qualitative data collecting techniques with greater emphasis on unstructured interviews. The roots of ethnography can be traced back to anthropological studies of small, rural and often remote societies that were undertaken by researchers such as Radcliff Brown, Malinowski in the early 1900s. This methodology was later adopted by the Chicago School of Sociology. Ethnography aims to provide a rich and holistic insight into people’s views and actions as well as the nature (i.e. sound, sight) of the location they inhabit through the collection of detailed observations and interviews.
A research method consists of four methods to gain data, which is questionnaire,interviews and observation. According to Bowling (2005) researcher need to consider the requirement of method of collecting data depends on the quality and accuracy. In this research study planned to use the questionnaire, focus group and interview method to gain in-depth information on the researcher topic “Reading and language development through play for Early years ESL Students”. Action Research
250 - 255) used ethnography. Ethnography is the systematic study of people and culture, and it carries out broad observation of a group being involved in their activities over a period of time (Brownlow, 2012). Corsaro (1985), is interested in how friendship is described in communication between children, and what it means in certain places at specific times, rather than in a formal interview. In support, he video records them and makes notes of children's activities and their collaborations with others. The researcher needs to become a member of a specific group and spend months and sometimes even years, in order to carry out observations from within the group (Brownlow, 2012).
A very important distinguishing feature of an ethnographic research strategy is fieldwork. In fact, Whitehead (2005) claims that spending long periods of time in the field is “a crucial aspect of the classical ethnographer’s ability to comprehensively describe components of a cultural system as accurately and with little bias as possible” (p. 5). In Analysis 1, the adopted method to collect data is semi structured in-depth interviews. A very important aspect to consider while collecting data using an ethnographic method is their emic validity. According to Whitehead (2005) emic validity means to “understand the study host(s) from their own system of meanings” (p. 5).
Ethnography is a methodology which is used scientifically to describe individual cultures and the people-hood within these cultures. Spradley (1979) describes culture as “the acquired knowledge that people use to interpret experience and generate social behaviour” (p. 5). Ethnography is a holistic and inductive method for studying people, places and processes (Creswell, 1994; Lincoln Guba, 1985) which has a long history in the social sciences. It is most commonly associated with anthropology but also has deep roots within sociology (Bernard, 2002). With regard to its inductive meaning, researchers ‘do’ ethnography in an attempt to capture through description, experience and analysis, the bottom-up, lived experience of individuals (Agar, 1996;