2.3 Feedback on Students' Writing Feedback is a key element in language learning. It can promote minimal or deep learning. Hattie and Timperely (2007) state that feedback is "information provided by an agent regarding some aspects of one's task performance". (p.81). Narciss (2008) also defines feedback as "all post-response information that is provided to a learner to inform the learner on his or her actual state of learning or performance".
Abstract: Feedback is one of the crucial element of learning and achievement, but its outcome can be either positive or negative. Drawing on findings from program on implementation (POI) feedback forms of NABH, this paper reveals the extent to which effectiveness can be accurately measured and challenges many of the aspects and beliefs about feedback practices. The paper argues that the participants is in the best position to judge the effectiveness of feedback, but may not always recognize the benefits it provides. This article provides in depth analysis of feedback and reviews the evidence related to its impact on learning, improvement and achievement. It is advent that although feedback is among the major influences, the type of feedback and the way it is given can be differentially effective.
Student Classification and Developmental Aspects of Feedback The power of feedback is substantial in the development of student’s learning and accomplishments. Following a meta-analysis of over 500 studies, involving roughly 20 million students, it was found that assessment feedback had more of an influence on a student’s success in comparison to socioeconomic status (SES) and former cognitive skills (Hattie, 1999). SES and prior cognitive abilities are both recognized for being strong indicators of performance (Sirin, 2005). Feedback can be defined as any form of information given that expands one’s knowledge. This knowledge affords information that will allot students to achieve at a higher level than originally possible, or the opportunity
The review of literature explores in depth the purpose of feedback, the concept of directive feedback and its significant values in writing. The types and effectiveness of feedback in writing is the central focus of this research. While some teachers may feel discouraged as students seem to ignore their feedback (Hairston, 1986), while other teachers think that their feedback is useful (Leki, 1991). However, students may sometimes feel frustrated and confused when reading their teacher’s recommendations and comments (Mantello, 1997). Feedback was widely cited as an important medium of learning and performance (Bandura, 1991), but a few studies have reported feedback as devastating because it did not present any effect at all (Mory, 2004).
(Semke, 1984) study demonstrated that feedback comments oriented on meaning not only benefited students proficiency but commitment to learning independently and their confidence to perform tasks honestly. (Sheppard, 1992) research described grammar corrective feedback as it discouraged students of using complex structures and did not benefited their writing accuracy either. Finally, as shown in (Chen et al., 2016), students’ most preferred type of feedback was meaning focused as they considered it most effective in fostering their writing skills. Comparing the studies, there is a contradiction to note. The first study claims that corrections do not increase writing accuracy, however in (Sheppard, 1992) this result is contradicted by the evidence that Group A increased significally in verb accuracy yet it was not more than group B.
One of the most useful techniques to help student develop writing skill is giving feedback. There are two common types of feedback that teachers usually use when give feedback are: direct feedback and indirect feedback. There are many researchers have conducted to investigate the role of feedback in teaching and learning writing. Being interested in the vital role of feedback in contributing to effective language learning, I have read a number of reports and I found that teacher feedback play an important role in students’ writing improvement. The term “feedback” is not new to us; in fact, a great number of researches have been undertaken and many articles about feedback have been written (e.g.
Instructors tailor their teaching strategies to student responses and encourage students to analyze, interpret, and predict information. Teachers also rely heavily on open-ended questions and promote extensive dialogue among students. Assessment–Constructivism calls for the elimination of grades and standardized testing. Instead, assessment becomes part of the learning process so that students play a larger role in judging their own progress (Walden University
The feedback could come in many forms, from tutorials or informal presentations and discussions in groups, where the educator gives feedback but the students are also encouraged to give their opinion, to informal submissions of the ﬁnal coursework, to any number of activities within the classroom that the teacher can observe and help with or give feedback on the spot (Ziad, H et. al 2010). The summative assessment process is described as the check at the end of the formative process. This is usually the time when marks are assigned to the students rather than feedback given, and in this sense it is harder for this type of assessment to contribute to the learning process much; Brookhart’s (2001) paper challenges the validity of summative assessment when used as the only form of assessment, though he concedes that it can
(REF). Students/learners watch the behaviour of their preceptor being modelled, so when the learner gets the opportunity they can reproduce that behaviour in their clinical area and receive feedback. Feedback is critical as it shows the students how they well they performed the skill, or if they need to improve their skills.
After diagnosing the problem and finding its reason, it is the time to do something to solve it. To make sure the prediction has an effect on the learning process, the best way is to exchange the information about the problem. This information is called feedback which is an important factor in learning. There are a lot of different sources of feedback such as the teacher, a grade on a certificate, a peer’s gesture, and so forth (Alderson, et al., 2015). According to Jang and Wagner (2014), diagnostic feedback refers to the information provided to the learners to make them able to reflect on their performance with the purpose of receiving appropriate remedy.