In the Victorian Era, women hardly had any rights from having jobs to abiding by a dress code. Before they were even married, they experienced prejudice . According to the “The Working and Middle Classes in Victorian Era England”, women were seen (by men) as emotional and unstable to the point where “they were incapable of making rational decisions.” This was completely unfair for women because the fact that they raised kids and managed domestic life showed their responsibility proved that they could make rational decisions. This denies their basic human rights because women have the freedom to think and make decisions. Once a woman marries, all of her property would go to her husband and she must live under his shadow.
Social norms and family structure in growing countries like India, manifests and perpetuate the subordinate level of women. One of the norms is the ongoing preference for a son over the birth of child which in present in almost all societies and communities. The society is more biased in favor of male child in respect of education, nutrition and other opportunities. The origin cause of this type of attitude lies in the belief that male child inherits the clan in India with an exception of Meghalaya. Women often internalize the traditional concept of their role as natural thus inflicting an injustice upon them.
Fear of violence is an important factor in the lives of most women. Fear of violence is the cause of lack of participation in every sphere of life. There are various forms of crime against women. Sometimes it is even before birth, some times in the adulthood and other phrases of life. In the Indian society, position of women is always perceived in relation to the man.
The incorporation of transfeminism and Indigenous Feminism broadens the perception of a women’s reality, which will be discussed subsequently by first addressing the utilization of sisterhood in feminism. To begin with, Hooks (2014) addresses the flaws of Sisterhood in feminism. The author argues that the creators of Sisterhood coupled with its concentration on a common oppression was inaccurate about women’s true experiences. Hooks (2014) states; “The idea of common oppression was a false and corrupt platform disguising and mystifying the true nature of women’s’ varied and complex reality. Women are divided by sexist attitudes, racism, class privilege, and a host of prejudices” (pp.
McKinnon’s engagement with the race and class question is quite superfluous. For her, these categories stand disposable in the search for a greater truth, the essentialism of a “woman” lying behind the veil of all these differences (Bartlett). This means that women who belong to different classes, races or even sexual orientations are collectivized and homogenized under a singular banner of womanhood. This brings about two distinct harms. Firstly, the sense of belonging that these women have to questions other than the “feminine” one is stripped away and appropriated to an entirely different discourse.
(Zinn, 2005) Women are not represented appropriately at all levels of governments’ decision making in community, but specifically at national and regional levels. The legal system in most of the countries discriminates particularly against women in the fields of inheritance, family law, land ownership, property, criminal law and citizenship. The prosecution of cases, in most of the countries, involving violence against women is difficult and complex. The discrimination specifically against girls and women- including economic discrimination, gender-based violence, harmful conventional practices and reproductive health inequities- remains the most persistent and pervasive form of inequality. Moreover, girls and women bear extra hardship during, as well as, after conflict and different humanitarian emergencies.
In all over the world, in every country women had limited rights and works for the men. In India devdasi system, sati system and baal vivah system was very unpleasant to the women’s rights. In America there was no suffrage for the women and in Europe also women were in very worse condition. They were treated as a slave of men. In history Women’s rights is the fight for the idea that women should have equal rights with men.
However, the rights and opportunities afforded to women have never been on the same level with the rights and opportunities accorded to men of the said societies. These differences in the opportunities of life found between men and women have forced women in many contexts to bear a subordinate position. This can be seen in a number of sectors, such the economic, political, social, and cultural life of each society. Discrimination is traditionally considered to refer to those negative and unfair actions meant to restrict or deny the equal treatment of individuals and groups (Allport, 1954, p. 51). Previous research shows that women perceive a broader range of behaviors as discriminatory ( Fitzegerald and Ormerod 1991; Pryor and Day 1988), and that women have more egalitarian gender role attitudes than men across many different countries ( Glick et al.
In this age, where gender equality is a concept of importance, the debate has laid emphasis on the fact that women lack economic independence as enjoyed by men. The important role played by the laws of succession with regard to facilitating or impeding economic independence is generally ignored. Succession law deals with handling of property from one generation to another, and if they are gender biased then women lose a great chance of acquiring property in similar fashion as men and their economic independence is hampered. India is known for its multiplicity of personal laws (which also govern succession matters), hence succession laws are also very diverse in nature. Succession laws are classified in two groups: the first set of laws is religion based and ancient in time.