The Helicopter’s power comes from a piston engine or a gas turbine which moves the rotor shaft and causing the rotor to turn and then the helicopter rotor achieves the lift by pushing the air beneath it downwards as it spins [ 7]. HOW THE ALTITUDE SYSTEM WORKS Firstly an altitude is the distance measurement in a vertical up direction between the reference and the object. In aviation altitude is measured using either Mean sea level (MSL) or logical
Updraft carburetor: This type is placed low on the engine and uses a gravity fed-fuel supply. In other words, the tank is above the carburetor and the fuel falls to it. Even this carburetor uses gravity to receive the fuel from the tank, the air-fuel mixture must be forced upward into the engine 3. Downdraft carburetor: This carburetor operates with lower air velocities and larger passages. This is because gravity assists the air-fuel mixture flow to the cylinder.
After that , the drag depends on airspeed , thus the drag increases. When drag is again equal to thrust , the aircraft no longer accelerates but holds a new , higher , and constant airspeed. This explains that every object persists in its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless it is compelled to change that state by forces on it. b) CAR. Newton’s First Law also known as Law Of Inertia.
By implementing the second law of motion the particle will accelerate or decelerate if there exists a pressure difference over the particle. The particle’s velocity will increase when it is approaching a low-pressure region and decrease its velocity at a high-pressure region. This principle can also be seen in terms of pressure. If a fluid is slowed down in the pipe the pressure will rise and vice versa. This principle is applicable to the basic way an aircraft’s wing is able to generate lift (Figure 10).
There are electro-hydrostatic actuators driven by a flight control system. Lockheed Martin / Boeing F-22 Raptor (2005) The single seat F-22 Raptor is an extremely high tech and twin-engine aircraft. It has integrated avionics and its performance is highly stealth and superior, making it a super-manoeuvrable fighter. At supersonic and subsonic speeds, the Raptor is highly manoeuvrable. It is capable of performing very high angle of attack manoeuvres and maintain stability
Turbochargers for vehicle internal combustion engines normally include a compressor impeller that compresses the gas flow delivered to the intake manifold of the engine. In carbureted gasoline engines the gas flow is an air fuel mixture, while in diesel and stratified charge engines the gas flow is only air or other oxidant gas. The compressor is driven by a turbine which, in turn, is driven by exhaust flow from the engine exhaust manifold. In such vehicle engines maximum torque is required for acceleration at lower engine speeds. Accordingly, the turbine is sized to produce high compressor speeds at these low engine speeds.
However, the virtual mass force is taken into account in the simulations preformed since including this may enable convergence by making the flow less sensitive to momentum or pressure relaxation factors. The virtual mass force arises when a droplet is accelerated or decelerated and the surrounding fluid is accelerated and decelerated together with the droplet. This means that the droplet seems heavier than it actually is. The simulated spray system does not involve any significant pressure gradient and because of this also the pressure force is neglected. Since the density of the liquid is much larger than the gas density, the buoyancy force of the gas on the droplet will be much smaller than the gravitational force and the buoyancy force is therefore neglected.
Thus, the concept car developed by Lit motors is self stabilizing, however it has one more added feature i.e. even if any external force is applied to the vehicle it get’s displaced initially but again comes back to its original position, i.e. it not only stabilizes but also balances itself on its own against any disturbances. The self balancing phenomenon is possible only because of the high level electronic system imparted in the vehicle that gives the necessary signal to the gyroscope to produce a counter-balancing effect as per the applied external force so that the vehicle comes back to the initial position after getting displaced. Fig 1.6: Gyroscopes imparted in the vehicle Two gyroscopes used in the concept car with high level electronics are shown in Fig: 1.6.
Volumetric efficiency is also the ratio of air volume drawn into the cylinder to the cylinder's swept volume. Volumetric efficiency is a ratio or percentage of the mass of air and fuel that is trapped by the cylinder during induction divided by the mass that would occupy the displaced volume at the density of the air in the intake manifold. The flow restrictions in the intake system create a pressure drop in the inlet flow which reduces the
The blades spin at high speed and compress or squeeze the air. The compressed air is then sprayed with fuel and an electric spark lights the mixture. The burning gases expand and blast out through the nozzle, at the back of the engine. As the jets of gas shoot backward, the engine and the aircraft are thrust forward. As the hot air is going to the nozzle, it passes through another group of blades called the turbine.