The proponents of this theory argued that food scarcity occurs when the availability of food is less than the food necessity of the population. The primary developers of this approach were Adam Smith and Malthus who argued that famines are primarily caused by a sudden decline in food availability. They consider natural drivers as the main causes for food insecurity and analyses their influence on harvest failures and advances in prices. They are supply oriented, in this sense the Food Availability Decline theory differs from climate theory. Food availability decline theory is vulnerable to criticism because it confined on food availability at local levels instead of including assessments on food availability at aggregate or macro levels.
Progress and improvement in human development invariably promotes success in food security (Conceicao, Fuentes-Nieva, Horn-Phathanothai, & Ngororano, 2011). Sen (1982) showed that extensive hunger occurred when certain groups could not purchase food, either because of a spike in prices or a fall in wages or both. The achievement of food security requires governments to address both food supply and demand, such as avoiding failures in: production, trade and response (Devereux, 2009). Causes of Food crisis A combination of factors has caused the food crisis during the second half of the 20th century, in Africa, however, all the crisis stemmed from failed harvests due weather extremes. The climatic challenge is exaxerbated by inadequate infrastructure, lack of mechanization, and constraints in access to credit, insurance, and agricultural markets (Conceicao, et al., 2011).
Malnutrition in Developing Countries The causes of malnutrition and poverty are different from countries. In developing countries, political, economic, and social crises are among the causes; while in developed countries, other reasons can be discussed. In the developing countries; the situation is still difficult sincere since the fund allocates to end hunger is unfairly shared. Therefore, the situation seems to worsen that before. We need to understand the food insecurity in Africa.
Among others the existence of production inefficiency at farm level, lack of and inexistence of improved production technologies are the main factors that affect productivity of maize (Arega, 2003; Arega and Rashid, 2005; Jon, 2007). There are also different risk factors, which adversely affect maize yield. Weather risk and market risks are the major challenges for farmers. In addition to the above mentioned factors, low level of crop management practices, weeds, pest and diseases, erratic rainfall, erosion, low soil fertility, poor infrastructure, and post harvest crop losses are also a growing concerns for the low productivity of maize crop in Ethiopia (ECEA, 2009; Legesse et al.,
World Food Day is a day of fighting against hunger at the same time spread the awareness of surviving hunger . World hunger means the scarcity of food resources of a country and the wants or needs of food are unable to fulfilled in the society. Malnutrition, undernutrition and overnutrition (obesity, overweight) is the causes of hunger. Both malnutrition and undernutrition refer to the effects on people of not having enough food. In this day and age, over thousands and millions of people are struggling to feed their children a nutritious meal and most of them do not have a healthy eating lifestyle.
According to Kitissou(2014), In 2003 the drought causing Ethiopia's starvation which increased the hunger, so the president of Malawi announced that he would help his farmers by extends them with seeds and fertilizers, but it was not enough because drought affected South Africa in economics growth very badly. Kitissou(2014) added that in 2010 an Organization arrived from Spain, Canada and the Unites States awarded South Africa for 880$million.But this money was not enough because there are more than 2 billion people suffer from hunger in the world. It is agreed that there were many efforts tried to solve the hunger problem. But these efforts did not solve this problem completely because the percent of the hunger in South Africa is not
3.4.3 Food waste at logistics and transportation level Logistics and transportation can be major determinants for food losses and waste because of the time span required for food to reach final distributors. Of course, this is particularly evident for perishable food. Among
World hunger has always been a problem that has plagued humanity, and through the years, it has remained an almost impossible problem to solve. However, industrialized agriculture has become a possible solution to world hunger with its ability to produce more food on less land than traditional methods. Industrialized agriculture is the solution Robert Paarlberg offers in his article, “Attention Whole Food Shoppers” which first appeared in April 2010 edition of Foreign Policy. Paarlberg attempts to use specific criteria to demonstrate the benefits of industrialized agriculture, such as its impacts on world hunger, the income gap, and global politics. Paarlberg was to an extent successful at proving his points and persuading his intended audience.
Chapter no 2 2.1 Literature review The present research is an effort to provide the reader with different concepts and ideas relating to hunger so while continuing this research it is needed to know some basic questions: What in fact hunger is? What are the different sentiments about hunger? If hunger is regarded as an evil/problem what could be the different causes (i.e. food scarcity, low income, less production, political instability) and then possible solutions? In Kalama, a village in Rajasthan, (India) the word hunger is defined culturally as “the worst disease”.
Due to the current economic crisis Jamaicans are experiencing some form of loss of income or income generation opportunities or employment are therefore lack the purchasing power needed to access healthy affordable food This lack of access to food can result in hunger (food deprivation), malnutrition (deficiencies, imbalances, or excesses of nutrients), and famine. Hunger has a negative impact on a person’s wellbeing as it reduces natural defences against diseases, which is the main risk factor for illness worldwide. In addition high food price is of utmost concern to