In social capital research, scholars typically assume a connection between networks and norms, and argue that increase in social capital produce positive outcome, though not always but often (Horne 2007). Since norms are formed and maintained by networks of interpersonal interactions beyond agreements (Friedkin 2001), they will form a strong influence on group-based behaviour and are difficult to change (Parks 2011). Hence in various instances, norms are seen as basis of building and maintaining personalised trust, and also to define what actions are acceptable or unacceptable (Lyon 2000) - providing a social standard of behaviour that drives the coordination for individuals during conflict situations (Fujiwara and Postlewaite 1995). Thus, norms are more precisely described as: (i) a behavioural regularity (Coleman 1990; Horne 2001) (ii) It is based on a socially shared belief how one ought to behave, which triggers (iii) the enforcement of the prescribed behaviour by informal social sanctions (Fehr and Gachter 1998; 2000). In nutshell, norms are rules about the behaviour that are enforced through social sanctions affecting the people behaviour (Coleman 1990; Horne 2001).
Resources commitment are essential for reverse logistics capabilities. Information as a sources of reverse logistics becomes essential because investing in information technology can help retailers develop a sustainable competitive advantages. Information systems (IS) capabilities are recognized as playing an important role in managing RL processes. The fourth hypotheses is contractual arrangements are positively related to reverse logistics capabilities. Contractual arrangements are part of a socialization process with other channel members that involves arranging relationships that intentionally promote goal consistency.
Second, the practices that professionals undertake must be for “public-regarding ends and in a public-regarding way” (Hatcher 2008, p. 25). This is crucial because the public expects that professionals will contribute to sustaining and improving public valuesor, in economic terms,“public goods” such as “health care, civil regulation and social justice, technological safety, and environmental regulation, publicly available information that is reliable and comprehensible, and high-quality education” (Hatcher 2008,p. 4). In other words, civic professionals are and should be “active participants in civic life,” who “cast their identities, roles, and expertise around a democratic, public mission, suffusing their technical competence with civic awareness and purpose” (Peters 2004, p.
What makes Bill Gates a successful leader? 20/03/2015 - Lody Versteegen (10617396) University of Amsterdam – Master Business Administration – Leadership TABLE OF CONTENT Introduction Bill Gates Transformational Leadership Charisma Narcissism Conclusion Literature INTRODUCTION “As we look ahead into the next century, leaders will be those who empower others” (Bill Gates). Aspects that make someone a good leader that empowers others, is a subject of great interest for a lot of people. There are many stories about what distinguishes a great leader a lot of research has been conducted on leadership. Leaders like Barack Obama, Steve Jobs, Nelson Mandela and bill gates, inspired people all over the world.
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the study Topic on integrity has been the preference of many researchers since a decade ago. Integrity has become main priorities for organization’s or even country’s strategic value to enhance competitiveness (Storr, 2004; Lee, 2005; Thoms, 2008). According to OECD (2009), public trust is measured according to public officials’ integrity and it is considered a key determinant of public trust. Integrity in public servant is widely communicated as the increasing number of corruption cases, power abusing, and misappropriations. This is as the result of unstoppable media report on this matter.
It is defined as the ‘long term prosperity and survival of the organization’ (Yulk, 2013). Its survival on the market is determined by its ability to adapt (by updating and improving) to volatile environments, and to have an efficient relations performance and Human Resource Management. OP is also influenced by the flexible leadership theory, that focuses on the leader’s direct influence on the individual and groups by using: task oriented behaviour to improve efficiency and process reliability; relation-oriented behaviour to improve human relations and human resources; and change oriented behaviour to improve innovation and adaption to the external environment (Yulk,
While the mayor has a point of understanding the real value of service, it can be argued that being aware of the different areas of good governance could give citizens a clearer picture as to what specific actions they can do to improve certain weak areas of the
2.0 Congruence Model of Effectiveness According to the Congruence Model of Effectiveness, an organization can be most effective when there is a state of congruence or compatibility between various elements of the organization. The various elements can be classified into internal context, external environment and patterns of employee behaviour. Effectiveness arises when the organization emphasizes on the alignment of internal context of the organization with the external environment. The emphasis is related to how employees act and interact with the external marketplace in which the organization lives and competes. To achieve alignment between Nokia and its external environment, Nokia must respond to external environmental changes by aligning its organizational purpose, strategy, business model and organizational design with the changes as a result of customer, employee, and investor expectations; social or cultural forces, technological changes, labour market
In the Enhancement Structural Adjustment Facilities of the IMF and the International Development Agency (IDA) lending activities of the World Bank, criteria of good governance play a major role in assessing the effectiveness of economic and social policies of governments for sustainable development. These include, for example, financial transparency, the quality of the public sector, the effectiveness of public service delivery and the equity of taxation by the government. Also, the quality of the legal and institutional framework that permits and protects people to undertake independent activities within the private sector and civil society are part and parcel of good
Stateness, universalism and equality are three main characteristics of the Nordic welfare model. A strong and good organized state has a great importance for the development of a welfare state. In terms of the state the decentralization of power has a great value. For example, local government play key role in a building relationships with civil social organizations. This cooperation helps to makes process of decision making more intensive and take into account the needs of citizens.