According to universalism, ‘human rights are the rights one has simply because one is human’ (Donelly, 2006: 80). This conception of human rights embodies three main features, the fact that everyone has rights, that all human have equal access to it and finally that no one can stop another to access those rights. This follows the idea that rights are natural and that rights exist independently from positive law, or ‘human-made’ law (Boot, 2006). Following this theory, conceptions of human rights can be found in any culture, such as Christianity, Buddhism or Islam (Kingsbury, 2016). The main conclusion of universalism is that human rights are the same worldwide and so should be protected as such.
On July 9, 1868, the Fourteenth amendment was formally introduced to the Constitution and granted citizenship to “all persons born or naturalized in the United States.” These words have as an ideal purpose that all levels of the federal government must operate within the law and provide fair conditions for all people. As a result, the states had a obligation to the public. Through the Fourteenth amendment, states were forbidden from denying any person “life, liberty, or property, without due process of law” or to “deny any person within jurisdiction the equal protection of laws.” By directly mentioning the role of the states, the Fourteenth amendment also expanded civil rights to African American slaves who had been emancipated after the American Civil War. The Citizenship clause is one of the three provisions and is the first statement said in Section 1 of the Fourteenth Amendment. It cinches that “all persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of every State wherein they reside.” Previously, interests of whether or not repealing birthright citizenship for the children of illegal aliens were increasing.
According to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, whatever race, culture, religion and nationality, all men on earth are born free, equal and possess all forms of right covering economic, social, cultural, civil and political aspects. Every individual has the responsibility to respect the rights of others. It demonstrates the universal values shared by all human beings: civilization, consideration, honesty, fairness, solidarity, openness, acceptance, recognition, relationship, compassion.  To maintain international peace, these values are recognized and expressed by law to guide us how to exercise our rights without invading or taking away the rights of others, promoting a concrete practice to protect human rights in a manner of reciprocity, equality and mutual respect. Law reflects ethics, it functions through juridical authority and sanction on improper behaviors.
Human rights is a universal legal guarantees that’s must all of the human beings have it because simply it’s belong to all human beings such as the right to life, civil and political rights. Thus, all human beings are born and equal in rights and dignity.in addition human rights is the right that a person must has because she or he is human beings, moreover human rights are indivisible and it is cannot denied because its less important or non-essential so all human rights are indivisible whatever they are, additionally, human rights are inalienable and equal and non-discrimination. Since the founding of the United Nations, the equality between women and men has been among the most fundamental guarantees of human rights. And the equality
Human rights are the basic rights and freedoms and also moral principles for all human beings in the world. Although the term Human Rights entered into Western Philosophy in the 17th century in the works of Grotius and Locke, it was first invoked and practised in America and France creating a new society and political order in 1776 and 1789 respectively. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was accepted by most members of the United Nations in 1948. The declaration, harking back to "barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind", speaks of the inherent dignity and the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family. These rights are held to be the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world.
The starting two articles talks about the human rights universal foundation. It states that, because of the essence of shared human dignity, all human being are equal; these two articles assures that everyone’s birthright are the human rights, not exemption of few selected, nor privileges denied or granted. The declaration in article 1 is that ‘all human beings are born equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.’ Article 2 talks about life free from discrimination. Everyone is supposed to get all the freedoms and rights set in the declaration, without discrimination of any type like colour, race, language, sex, political, religion or any other opinion, social or national origin, birth, property or any other
A statement I very much agree with is “Human rights exist above the state and beyond history, They cannot be rescinded by one government any more than they can be granted be another.” (McCain, 2017, pg 2) Human rights very much do exist above a state to an extent. Some of these rights are the most fundamental and sought after rights; freedom of speech, freedom of religion, right to a fair trial, right to life, etc. And as said by the UN: “Every person is entitled to human rights without discrimination.” (Kamal, 2017, pg 3) The establishment of a universal and global definition of human rights agreed upon and followed by all nations helps to determine when intervention to protect human lives is absolutely necessary, and also serves as a measuring stick for quality of life as well as what needs to be improved in a given nation. The system of human rights that exists currently has already helped to bring both aid and defense to many communities and peoples around the world. (Delaney, 2016, pg 1) My personal belief is that without the current system the international community
And that idea, in the wake of World War II, resulted finally in the document called the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the thirty rights to which all people are entitled. The most important advances since then have included which clear in the following table. (M. R. Ishay, (2004) 1. 1215 The Magna Carta Gave people new rights and made the king subject to the law. 2.
The global movement for the protection of human rights during the last five and half decades represent the culmination of the historical journey of humankind that commenced with the institutionalization of social and political order. Human rights are, therefore, universal values based on dignity, freedom, equality and justice without any distinction of caste, creed, color, sex, religion or country. Human rights are ingrained in the Indian Constitution and are as ancient as human civilization .All societies and cultures have in the past developed some conception of rights and principles that should be respected. Some of these rights and principles have been considered universal in nature. Drawing from the Indian Constitution, human rights perspectives have dominated the formulation of educational policies.