Essay On Adsorption Chromatography

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Adsorption chromatography was first to developed among all chromatographic techniques. Adsorption chromatography is a process of separation of components in a mixture based on the relative differences in adsorption of components on to the stationary phase of chromatography column. It utilizes a mobile liquid or gaseous phase that is adsorbed onto the surface of a stationary solid phase.

Principle-:
Separation is based mainly on the differentiation between the adsorption potential of the sample components for the surface of an active solid. Each solute has its own equilibrium between adsorption onto the surface of the solid (stationary phase) and solubility in the solvent (mobile phase). Based on the nature, polar compounds adsorb with stronger or greater affinity to the polar
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Typical Adsorbents used in adsorption chromatography:
Adsorbents like Carbon (Active Carbon) – Bone, coconut shell, or other carbonaceous material heated up to about 600°C (active carbon) – Activation → Selective oxidation of residual hydrocarbon by steam, air or other oxidants. Ion Exchange Resins – electrolyte consist of cross-linked polymer matrices which provide ion exchange capacity – Example of matrices:- styrene copolymerized with 1,3-dinitrobenzene (Dowex), cross-linked Polyacrylamide – depending on PKA of functional group can be divided into three classes 1) Strong Acid Cation 2) Strong Base Anion 3) Weak Base Anion
Silica gel: It is widely used adsorbent in both column and thin layer Chromatography. Silica gel is prepared by mixing of sodium silicate with sulphuric acid followed by washing with water and drying. The active sites of gel are the hydroxyl groups attached to silicon atoms.

Alumina: It is aluminum oxide, alumina activated by heating at 400˚C overnight. Advantages of

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