One could say that the whole world is primarily based on individualistic ideas. A human is an individual first, which means that his logic, feelings, emotions and thoughts will always surpass the societal constrains and traditions. Even though, most often than not, we catch ourselves following a certain social contract, the result of our behavior and life choices will most likely be autonomous and viewed from a personal point of view. But since Thomas Hobbes has already discussed the construct of societal order principles in the 16th century, it is more relevant to think about individualism in our modern day society. As the World (or even the universe) has become accessible with the click of a button, there aren’t many surprises left, challenges to face.
John Locke believed that, “Every man has a property in his own person. This no one has a right to but himself.” Since man owned himself Locke believed he should also own the fruits of his labour too. When it comes to John Locke addresses very eloquently a vast array of issues in the realm of epistemology. Locke proposed that an essential condition for liberty to be enjoyed is ‘property’. To justify his perception of liberty he starts by explaining the power of mind, and how we already possess it and the ability to use it to decide if an action has to be continued or not, whichever the mind prefers.
Aristotle and Locke however, have differing views on how a person accomplishes this. For Aristotle, citizens accomplish this by leaving the state of nature to pursue the chief goods in life. Whereas, for Locke, this is accomplished by creating and watching over a government to ensure protection. Aristotle believed that a citizen can contribute positively to the collective community in a variety of ways. He asserted that the greatest contribution a citizen can make is serving in deliberative and judicial office.
Leaving me with clear thoughts that underlined my value system, he gave words to what I consider the most valuable doctrine of my life - Freedom. Freedom matters the most to me. To me, freedom is not being limited on my desires. Freedom gives me choices, freedom is a sweet fruit - an outcome of a struggle and above all
For centuries, writes, philosophers and, more recently, jurists and law professors have expounded differing theories on why free expression is essential in an enlightened society. From the constitutive approach of the ancient Greeks and Immanuel Kant to the instrumental justifications of John Stuart Mill and Professor Alexander Meiklejohn, not to mention Spinoza, Alexis de Tocqueville, or feminist analysis, the canon of free speech theory is crowded indeed. Can anything new possible be said? Freedom of expression is both a cause and a consequence of social systems. It is a function of individualization caused by the division of labor in society.
For negative freedom, it is the sphere of control and for positive freedom it is the question of who is in control (129). The driving question for “positive” political freedom is “what or who, is the source of control or interference that can determine someone to do, or be, this rather than that” (Berlin, 122). This sense of political freedom requires a person being his own master and not relying on any outside influence (131). Positive political freedom is about man thinking for ones self and deciding for ones self, thereby establishing who they are to the world, on their own accord. Rationality and reason are also central to this sense of political freedom.
1. Indeed, many at times some individuals may find themselves question about the reason that why freedom of speech is so solidly entrenched in the American constitutional law and how wide is it being embraced by the general public. Indeed, it is imperative to think that overtime time historians, legal scholars, judges and philosophers have explored and attempted to give theoretical importance for the solid protection of freedom of press. Moreover, the First Amendment provides protection for freedom of speech that amounts to protection of press and has built ingrained perception that freedom of press is an indispensable tool of self-governance within the democratic society such the American one. According to Tedford and Herbeck (2001) arguments, it can be thought that free press came into existence when America was born.
ABSTRACT Human right is our birthright. Human rights protect our legal rights, such as life, education opportunity, freedom of speech, freedom of thought and religion. And the most important is freedom of movement. However, in massive of developing countries or centralized government deprive them of power. In those countries, the authorities participation and implementation of repressive policies to enhance their ’s political awareness and behavior.
Self-determination in the context of this approach means a sense of freedom in relation to both the forces of the external environment and to the forces within the individual. A person is called autonomous, when he acts as a subject, proceeding from a deep sense of self. To be autonomous means to be self-initiated and self-regulating, in contrast to situations of coercion and seduction, when actions do not flow from the deep self. The need for autonomy means the need for choice and self-determination of one 's own behavior. It is a universal need to feel that you are an activist, an initiator, the cause of your own life and act in harmony with your integrated self.
By virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development’ . While reading this article, it makes me put the stress on self-determination part of it. A self-determined act would necessarily mean that one is to be held responsible for that act, be it to the one’s advantage or to the opposite. At least, this is the way we are used to regard our decision taking, by attributing our thoughts, actions and decisions, solely to our own choice subjected to our own free will, disregarding the constraints. Rawls, on the other side, rightfully assumes (in my opinion), that we are responsible for making our choices, in order to come up with the fairest society for all.