According to the paper Smart Cities, there is no single specific definition of smart city. The term smart city is defined differently by different people. According to some, smart cities are those cities with “smart (intelligent) physical, social, institutional and economic infrastructure while ensuring centrality of citizens in a sustainable environment whereas Accenture defines smart city as a “city that delivers services to citizen and businesses in an integrated and resource efficient way and enables innovative collaborations to improve inhabitants’ quality of life and support the growth of the local and national economy”. People have started to migrate in urban cities and due to unplanned urbanization this has led many problems, for example,
The foreign workers who seek cheap and low cost house as accommodation resulting in shortage of housing for Malaysians. With this, it can be inferred that other Malaysians can cover this problem by applying a compact living concept in their household and give way to others to own a property. In conclusion, Malaysian should consider compact living as one of the solution for housing development that can cater to the current issues which are the current economy status, high living cost and limited residential. The condition of Malaysia's economy now are growing more slowly and it is suggested that Malaysians should re-plan their life and find ways to tackle rising living costs to adjust in this environment. Malaysians can no longer live the way they did before and must better manage their finances and learn how to conserve and
However, the noteworthy reason as to why people move in big cities is in search of an employment that can give them financial stability, and a good opportunity to support their families financially. The jobs available in small towns offer very little salary and many people opt to move in a big city to increase their income. In the big cities, the working environment is competitive thus offering a ground to sharpen one’s skills and become more
These operators heavily provide services on selected routes to maximise profits under stiff competition but poorly regulated terrain (MoT, 2014). The governments of some of the developing countries still provide small percentages of the transport services, such as Metro Mass Transit Ltd. in Ghana and Federal Urban Mass Transit in Nigeria (which other states have adopted). Governments of Ghana and the Federal Republic of Nigeria (different state Governments) have been acquiring vehicles for the (quasi) public sector bus operators through loan facilities (Aderamo, 2010; MoT, 2014). These vehicles could be new or second hand buses that have limited benefits and many of these vehicles soon end up out of service (Finn, 2008; Finn & Mulley, 2011). Majority of trips in African and Asian cities are served by public transport (Rahman & Nahrin, 2012).
A public transportation service should provide a good accessibility that leads to reliable, safe, intelligent, convenience and effective of transportation system (Amiril, Nawawi, Takim, & Latif, 2014). However, the pattern of traffic system was generally increase since 5 years ago. People tends to use private transport rather than public transport. This situation happens because of the poor and unreliable service of public transport. The catchment of service was narrow and focusing only in urban area.
the walled city. So that better understanding of the pattern in which the city has grown, the physical, social and economic changes and the current situation. As the people used to live in walled city for togetherness and safety but due to urbanisation and issues like congestion, traffic, pollution, high land price has led to migration of old city area to suburban areas and the value of the old city in the city is seen to be lost. In present pace of economic development, historic resources are often taken as inefficient and unproductive. They are often replaced with buildings that appear contemporary and more efficient.
Understanding housing problems, informal settlements and Slums According to Abraham Maslow, Housing is a basic need, but due to the limited housing facilities to cope with urban growth individuals switch to informal settlement according to their income levels giving rise to low quality & income housing and slums in most developing countries where there is high concentration of low income groups. Informal housing can mainly be divided into slums, squatters and shanty towns. But for the purpose of this research Slums were given a greater consideration. In order to completely understand these forms of informal settlements, there is the need to draw a little light on them Shanty towns This refers to individuals or families who may occupy lands illegally by themselves and build their houses as best as they can (Grinberg, 2006). Shanty towns face characteristics of marginality and urban poverty such as
Study of Informal Public Transport in three selected cities (Kanpur, Aligarh and Hathras) 4.1. City selection criterias As per the literature review, informal public transport is an important part of the public transport in different cities, specially the cities of developing nations. The role and range of services of informal public transport varies according to the size and context of any city. To understand the different roles and range of services of informal public transport modes in various cities, three cities of Uttar Pradesh have been selected where the Informal public transport functions diversely according to the context of the city and also because of the presence or absence of the government-provided-public transport/formal public transport. The three selected cities are: • Kanpur – A city where public transport is available in the form of JnNURM buses and privately operated buses are in place • Aligarh – A city where public transport is available in the form of privately operated buses (which are regulated by the local government authorities) is in place • Hathras – A city where there is no formal public transport is available 4.1.1.
A major development challenges facing development countries like Tanzania, particularly urban authorities, is the rapid growth of the urban population as a result of migration and natural growth as well as its consequences in terms of pollution and deteriorating urban environment. Apart from rapid population growth and poverty, Informal Sector can be attributed to unemployment and slow growth of wage employment. As the economy’s capacity to absorb labour continues to trail behind the growth of the labour force, an increasing number of workers, mainly the urban poor, find jobs and incomes in the “urban Informal Sector”. In other words, its roots lie in the weak capabilities of formal institutions (government and modern private sectors) to provide employment, productive resources and sufficient infrastructure for a dynamic and growing
City transportation is an important pillar for quality of life of citizens in a city. Currently, in most of the cities, public and private road transportation are the key mode of commuting and logistics. Lack of quality and safe public transportation, inadequate capacity of public transportation, road safety concerns, overcrowded road network, poor traffic management, parking issues, theft, poor road conditions, lack of modal options (including pedestrian walkways) remain the key issues. Most cities also lack the integrated transportation plans leading to huge demand-supply gap and poor transportation network. As per a World Bank study, by 2031, some 600 million people are expected to live in India 's cities.