According to (Hechter & Kanazawa, 1997) rational choice theory is, "an intrinsically multilevel enterprise. It strives for social consequences on the foundation of both social circumstance and individual action." Nevertheless, the records and their elucidation remain at the collective level, for the theory does not endeavor to explain the actions of a rational person in a specific situation. Rational choice theorists consider both macro- and micro-level features to be significant contributing factors of outcomes, but empirical findings emphasized more on structural factors for methodological explanations related to limitations on quantitative measurement of individual values and reasoning (Hechter & Kanazawa 1997:193). Sociological rational choice theorists on the other hand take into account individual cognitive practices and values.
In this view methods of negotiation, cooperation, conflict, and other social settings are of primary interest. Next Gergen asserts, “meaning in language is context dependent”. This suggests that the language used in a social interaction is only relevant to that particular
been those belonging to the tradition of the Law of Nature. These show human rights depend directly on the natural order and are subject to a universal moral low, superior to positive law Present day human rights notions show human rights do not rest on nature but represent human requests historically defined and morally and politically justifiable by means of a non-naturalistic theory. History shows human rights were a vindication of freedom against the established power and as social economical demands. A clear understanding of the relationship between human rights and morality is best uncovered through the two main types of human rights moral theories the naturalistic and non-naturalistic one. 1.1.2.
The second set of epistemological issue of these relates to the fact that knowledge is best acquired, a inductive process through observing patterns and collect evidence and knowledge in the real society, in order to built up theories and make a conclusion. The third key epistemological concern related to the coherence theory of truth, a statement can only be considered as truth in representing socially constructed reality when it is supported by several reports, rather than suggesting it in an absolute way. Nevertheless, the pragmatic theory of truth suggests that interpretation and beliefs can only be true when there are prat or actions that produce the
A lack of influential social norms placed upon an individual allows them to commit deviant acts without the need for techniques of neutralization. A key assumption of neutralization theory is that individuals rely on social norms for cues on how to act or behave in social settings. However, when people do not identify with the social group they are amongst, they no longer need to validate or rationalize their deviant behaviours. Therefore, the significance of social groups and social identity on the deviant limit the scope of
Therefore, it could be said that human life and society cannot come under preview of scientific investigation. However, Weber maintained a different view that researches in social sciences can also based upon generalizations like of natural science. He saw sociology as a science that employs both interpretative understanding and casual explanation of social actions and interaction. As claimed, his theory being subjective motivational and historical and dualism rather than naturalistic, empirical. For him, these social action are classified as – means end rational action, value rational action and effectual or tradition actions, these are also the “ideal types”.
According to Katz (1987, p.19), perception is a matter of circumstances and are joined determined by the object and subject. If there is only one world to be perceived, as denoted by Gibson, Katz (1987, p.19) questions why there is difference in perception in different species. In addition, that approach does not offer an explanation to errors in perception. This is not possible because Gibson stresses the need to consider affordances in terms of both the world and the perceiver, and this is where the limitation of his theory is
This explains why eye tracking data has little meaning by itself. Careful observation of tasks and discussion with participants is necessary to understand their mental processes. Eye tracking just provides complementary data to aid in this understanding. iii. Eye tracking shows only where participants fixated, not the meaning of their fixations.
However, this method need not be first hand; the researcher can observe the previously recorded interactions and apply this method to study it. The whole purpose of this type of a method of research is that it gives us clues and hints to the other layers of reality (Interpreting Quality Data; pg 234; Description) However, without any meaning to the words, any type of a research on anyone does not hold significance. The whole point of ethnography is that the researcher gets an insight of how the things work and why people do what they do. The acquired content is the research done on the subject which helps the researchers to understand how people act in a certain social situation(Jane Stokes; Chapter 4; Pg 114). But as mentioned previously, the researchers will fail at relating the subjects’ actions to any social PHENOMENA without knowing the meanings and the history of the cultural
State identities and interests are a major part produced by these social structures, rather than generated exogenously to the system by human nature or national politics. Social constructivism focuses principally on human awareness or consciousness and its place in the world affairs. Constructivism is in itself materialist, concentrating on the distribution of material forces, together with defining levels of power between states along with producing various explanations in the behavioral frame of the states. Constructivists have stated that the reality that encompasses us is not in itself an outcome of the objective forces but is the result of one of our shared perceptions, ideas, social values and understanding. The state and the inter-state systems are both artificial forms, that means that they are produced by people, and they can be modified and developed in different forms in extraordinary cases leading to anarchy and a huge security dilemma.