Which form a list of requirements for the product. Next step is the conceptual design, in this phase designers generates different concepts for solving the problem. After comparison and assessment, the team will select one or more concept for implementation. The third step in the design process is the embodiment of the selected conceptual models. The final choice for the conceptual designs will make by detailed and then evaluated.
2.1 LCA model Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an effective tool for quantifying the environmental burden of products, processes or services during their life cycle from cradle to grave (ISO, 2006). Various LCA studies have been conducted in the energy and environment fields. LCA approaches can be divided into three: process-based LCA, IO LCA, and hybrid LCA. The process-based LCA requires information on energy, material, and resource inputs and environmental outputs for each stage in the product life cycle. The process-based approach was defined in the ISO 14040 framework, the general steps include goal and scope definition, inventory analysis, impact assessment, and interpretation (ISO, 2006).
A life cycle assessment is an analysis of a product for it’s environmental impact. The “life cycle” of a product is every phase a product goes through, from the time it is taken out of the Earth to the time it is returned to the Earth. The assessment generally consists of four stages: defining the scope, an inventory analysis, an impact assessment and the interpretation of the results of the other stages. Life Cycle Assessments are becoming more common because of the growing concern for environmentally friendly products. Life cycle assessments are used for their depth of analysis into the different phases of a product, providing a more complete picture to the environmental impact.
Introduction What is a comparative life cycle assessment?? A comparative L.C.A is used to compare the environmental impact of two or more products used in the same situation. LCA comes into play when your mission is to choose a product with the lowest possible environmental impact for marketing “green” construction or wanting to understand the environmental impact of that product for use. An example of this this would be in selling passive homes or NZEB (nearly zero energy buildings) This assessment will focus on steel and timber studs in residential use both 100mm wide by 2.4 meters long. We will go through four stages for each product, extraction, manufacturing, use and end of life.
Provide a clearer understanding. Clear documentation can be provided regarding the content and application of the survey instruments so that other researchers can assess the validity of the findings. Standardized approaches permit the study to be replicated in different areas or over time with the production of comparable findings. It is possible to control for the effects of extraneous variables that might result in misleading interpretations of causality (although this can be challenging in the natural settings of
Project Life Cycle Introduction: Projects have a beginning and end. The project life cycle has four phases, Concept (Initiation), Design (Planning), Implementation (Execution) and Closing off. Taken together, these phases represent the path a project takes from the beginning to its end and are generally referred to as the project “life cycle.” The knowledge and experience needed on the project can vary in each phase. Project Life Cycle Phases: 1. Concept (Initiation) Phase: Concept phase involves defining the purpose and scope of the project, justification and solutions to be implemented.
However, in the planning of long-term projects the execution of the project isn’t successful. Similarly, complex projects also require intense planning process where intensive research is to be conducted for finding solutions to the research projects. Also, effective planning needs to be developed focusing on saving time, allocating resources and implications of the cash flows. In the present context, planning in construction has been recognized as an effective model for techniques, models, designs etc. making it popular among contractors and stakeholders involved in the construction
• LCA involves better utilization of raw materials, low work in progress and low rejections. • Reduction of non-conforming product results in an automatic increase of labor productivity. • LCA principles are implemented around existing machines and people already involved in the manufacturing process. This makes changes gradual, smooth and very cost-effective. • LCA components are often flexible, reusable and adaptable to changes in product features making them a versatile and long lasting feature.
SIA can also be used to include supply chain; however it does not explicitly look at the product life cycle in its assessment. S-LCA is a four step process consisting of problem definition, Life Cycle Inventory (LCI), Lifecycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) and interpretation. However, unlike E-LCA it relies more on qualitative data. S-LCA is an iterative process and works with social hotspots which makes it well suited for supply chain